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Burrowes, R. J., The Strategy of Nonviolent Defense, A Gandhian Approach (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 367 pp. The book discusses de-escalating violence in a conflict: by one of the parties using nonviolence rather than violence. The point is not "does nonviolence always work?" - nothing ever does - but to know how it works when it does work. A more interesting point might actually be whether violence ever works if it leaves behind, as argued in the manual, at least two traumatized parties and dreams of more glory and revenge.

BЃttner, C. W., Friedensbrigaden: Zivile Konfliktbearbeitung mit gewaltfreien Methoden (Peace Brigades: Civilian Conflict Processing By Nonviolent Means) (MЃnster: LIT Verlag, 1995), 147 pp. No doubt this concept, civilian peace service in peace brigades, will play a considerable role in the future, bringing together empathy, nonviolence and creativity. A number of concrete cases are analyzed.
Camplisson, Joe and Hall, Michael, Hidden Frontiers. Addressing deep-rooted violent conflict in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Moldova, Newtownabbey, Co Antrim BT36 7JQ, Northern Ireland: Island Publications, 1996), Island Pamphlets No. 16, 44 pp. The pamphlet is a fascinating account about how becoming a conflict worker in one conflict prepared Joe Camplisson for significant conflict work in another setting, Republic of Moldova. The approach is very compatible with the present manual.
Chetkow-Yanoov, Benyamin, Social Work Approaches to Conflict Resolution: Making Fighting Obsolete (Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press, 1996), 174 pp. An easily readable book filled with common sense based on a wealth of personal experience. Good as an introduction to the field.
Curle, Adam, Another Way: Positive Response to Contemporary Violence (Oxford: Jon Carpenter, 1995). A veteran conflict worker with experience from India and Pakistan, Nigeria, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Ireland, Sri Lanka, Yugoslavia to mention some. The book deals more with meta-conflict than conflict, and particularly with the "New Violence", "sheer bloody- minded", with no cause, nor rationality - and what can be done about it. Equally recommended is his Tools for Transformation: A Personal Study (Hawthorn Press, 1990) and his classic, Making Peace (Tavistock, 1971), 301 pp.
Fischer, Dietrich, Nonmilitary Aspects of Security: A Systems Approach (Dartmouth, for UNIDIR, Geneva, 1993), 222 pp. The book contains a wealth of ideas for peace-building; it would be hard to imagine a conflict where some ideas could not be applied.
Galtung, Johan, Peace By Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization (London, New Delhi, Thousand Oaks: SAGE, 1996), 280pp. The book, organized in four parts that roughly correspond to direct violence, conflict transformation, structural violence and cultural violence, contains the theoretical background for this manual. Not recommended for beginners unless you feel particularly motivated.
Lederach, John Paul, Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Cultures (Syracuse, NJ: Syracuse University Press, 1995), 100+pp. This book is based on the author's extensive experience in Latin America, Asia and Africa, and his "elicitive" approach to understand the goals of the parties. Close to this manual.
Lumsden, Malvern, Peacebuilding in Macedonia, Oslo: PRIO, 1997, 76 pp. An account of the search to make Macedonia less vulnerable to violence through community-level projects.
Mahony, Liam and Eguren, Luis Enrique, Unarmed Bodyguards: International Accompaniment for the Protection of Human Rights (West Harford, CT: Kumarian Press, 1997), 275 pp. This book deals with "international accompaniment" in zones of violence, accompanying human rights activists and others. The "unarmed bodyguards" incur considerable risks, but their nonviolence, as practiced by Peace Brigades International seems to work.
Mindell, Arnold, The Leader as Martial Artist: Techniques and Strategies for Resolving Conflict and Creating Community, An Introduction to Deep democracy (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), 168 pp. This book focuses on the psychology of the conflict worker (not necessarily only a "leader"), and the deep problems that person is likely to encounter. Very imaginative exercises.
Mitchell, Christopher and Banks, Michael, Handbook of Conflict Resolution: The Analytical Problem-Solving Approach (London: Pinter, 1996), 187 pp. The approach described in this excellent handbook differs from the present manual in bringing the parties together for a joint workshop, solving problems together, then solving the problem of re-entry.
M"rland, Liv, Megling i konfliktr†d; Hva skjer? (Mediation in Conflict Councils; What happens?) (Kristiansand S.: H"yskole Forlaget, 1995),176 pp. The book contains an analysis of what happens in the Norwegian institution "konfliktr†d" (also known from New Zealand) for voluntary mediation by lay mediators to prevent criminality and as a substitute for civil process. One conclusion is that the mediation is most successful when the parties formulate the conflict from their own perspectives in their own language, and the mediators (team, with high empathy) are not too different from the conflict parties. Informality is preferred over bureaucratization.
Ortega, Zoilam‚rica, Desmovilizados de guerra en la construcciўn de la paz en Nicaragua (Demobilized soldiers constructing peace in Nicaragua) (Managua: Centro de Estudios Internacionales, 1996), 91 pp. The book reports an experiment filled with promise for the future: soldiers on both sides of the bitter civil war in Nicaragua demobilizing and then joining in reconstructing what they destroyed during the wart, in the process both reconciling and contributing to the resolution of the conflict. Also see her The Nicaraguan Experience.
Patfoort, Pat, Uprooting Violence, Building Nonviolence (Freeport, ME: Cobblesmith, 1995), 128 pp. An excellent primer in what nonviolence means at the intra- and interpersonal level, in communication as verbal nonviolence, and as peace culture.
Ross, Marc Howard, The Management of Conflict: Interpretations and Interests in Comparative Perspective (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), 226 pp. The psychoculture of conflict transformation, the kind of assumptions, conscious and subconscious, participants and mediators have about conflicts, and the conditions for a constructive conflict society.
Sandole, D. & van der Merwe, H., eds., Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice (Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1993), 298 pp. A very useful introduction to different US approaches in the field of conflict resolution. Stutzman,J. & Schrock-Shenk, C., eds., Mediation and Facilitation Training Manual (Mennonite Conciliation Service, PO Box 500 Akron, PA 17501-0500;Third Printing, 1996), 310 pp. An excellent manual, very rich in content, with examples from daily life.
Thompson, W. S. & Jensen, K. M. eds., Approaches to Peace: An Intellectual Map (Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1992), 414 pp. A very useful collection of 16 chapters, essentially outlining mainstream approaches to peace.
Wehr, Paul, Burgess, Heidi & Burgess, Guy ed., Justice Without Violence (Boulder & London: Lynne Rienner, 1994), 300 pp. Thirteen articles about nonviolent action against direct and structural violence, in general, in Nicaragua, Eastern Europe, ex-Soviet Union, China, Africa, the Middle East and India.
XXX, Empowerment for Peace Service (Stockholm: Unit for Justice, Peace and Creation, Christian Council of Sweden, Box 1764, 11187 Stockholm, 1996), 109 pp. An excellent overview of training of conflict/peace workers, indicating how to get more material.
Avruch, K., Black, P., Scimecca, J., Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives
Edward de Bono, Conflicts. A Better Way to Resolve Them. London: Penguin, 1991 (first published 1985).
John W. Burton and Frank Dukes, Conflict: Practices in Management, Settleent & Resolution New York: St Martin's, Press, 1990
John W. Burton and Frank Dukes, eds., Conflict: Readings in Management & Resolution London: Macmillan, 1990
John W. Burton, Conflict: Resolution and Provention
John W. Burton, Conflict: Human Needs Theory
C. R. Mitchell, The Structure of International Conflict, London: Macmillan, 1981
Dennis J. D. Sandole and Ingrid Sandole-Staroste, eds., Conflict Management and Problem Solving New York: New York University Press, 1987.

1 Адаптоване з промови в Палаці Націй в Женеві 21 лютого 1999 року на семінарі “ООН і трансформація конфліктів в 21 столітті”.

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