Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С

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Unit 8

Stomach Cancer

To-Infinitive or Gerund after a Verb

Pre-Text Assignments

      1. Learn the following words.

adenocarcinoma, n

pl adenocarcinomas/ adenocarcinomata


pl ['xdInqV"kRsI'nqVmqtq]

аденокарцинома, залозистий рак

benign, adj



chemotherapy, n



gastric cancer

['gxstrIk 'kxnsq(r)]

рак шлунка

growth, n


новоутвір, пухлина

intravenous, adj



malignant, adj



metastasis, n

pl metastases


pl [mq'txstqsJs]

метастаз, метастазування

polyp, n



radiation therapy


променева терапія

radiotherapy, n


променева терапія

rays, n



stomach cancer

['stAmqk 'kxnsq(r)

рак шлунка

supplements, n



tumour, n



vitamin B12 shot

['vItqmIn 'bi: 'twelv 'SPt]

введення вітаміну B12

      1. Match the following terms with their definition.


    1. the feeling that one is about to vomit, as experienced in seasickness and in morning sickness of early pregnancy. Actual vomiting often occurs subsequently

    1. the reflex action of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth

    1. the process by which food is transferred from the mouth to the oesophagus (gullet)

    1. the distant spread of malignant tumour from its site of origin.

    1. a malignant epithelial tumour arising from glandular structures, which are constituent parts of most organs of the body

    1. an ulcer in the stomach, caused by the action of acid, pepsin, and bile on the stomach lining (mucosa)

gastric ulcer
    1. any abnormal swelling in or on a part of the body

    1. B

CT scan
    1. medical treatment in which someone’s body is cut open so that a doctor (surgeon) can repair, remove, or replace a diseased or damaged part

    1. treatment of disease with penetrating radiation, such as X-rays, beta rays, or gamma rays, which may be produced by machines or given off by radioactive isotopes. Beams of radiation may be directed at a diseased part from a distance or radioactive material, in the form of needles, wires, or pellets, may be implanted in the body. Many forms of cancer are destroyed by this method of treatment

    1. the intake of nutrients and their subsequent absorption and assimilation by the tissues. Patients who cannot be fed in a normal way can be given nutrients by tubes into the intestines (enteral feeding) or by infusion into a vein (intravenous feeding)

    1. looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope, an instrument, an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body

    1. the use of an image intensifier to produce real-time image of the upper part of the trunk during an X-ray examination

physical examination

a form of X-ray examination in which the X-ray source and detector rotate around the object to be scanned and the information obtained can be used to produce cross-sectional images by computer. A higher radiation dose is received by the patient than with some conventional X-ray techniques, but the diagnostic information obtained is far greater and should outweigh the increased risk. It can be used for all parts of the body, but is particularly useful in the head, chest, and abdomen. The data obtained can be used to construct three-dimensional images of structures of interest.

chest x-ray
    1. the process of examining the body by means of sight, touch, percussion, or auscultation to diagnose disease or verify fitness


    1. the prevention or treatment of disease by the use of chemical substances. The term is increasingly restricted to the treatment of cancer with antimetabolites and similar drugs in contrast to radiotherapy

    1. examination of the abdominal structures by means of an illuminated tubular instrument. This is passed through a small incision in the wall of the abdomen after injecting carbon dioxide into the abdominal cavity. In addition to being a diagnostic aid, it is used when taking a biopsy, aspirating cysts, and dividing adhesions. Surgery, including cholecystectomy, can also be performed through a laparoscope, using either a laser or diathermy to control bleeding


the removal of a small piece of living tissue from an organ or part of the body for microscopic examination. It is an important means of diagnosing cancer from examination of a fragment of tumour. It is often carried out with a special hollow needle, inserted into the liver, kidney, or other organ, with relatively little discomfort to the patient

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