epithelial cells shed by the gastrointestinal tract
їжа тоді проштовхується в глотку за допомогою язика
the saliva helps moisten food particles
змішувати їжу зі слиною
food is then forced to the pharynx by the tongue
пальцеподібні відростки, що називаються ворсинки
розщеплювати великі протеїни на малі
a soupy mixture called chyme
мимовільна фаза ковтання
кашоподібна суміш, що називається хімус
Using the adjective endings –ic or –al write a word for each of the following definitions. Pertaining to the stomach ______________
Pertaining to the intestine ______________
Pertaining to the pylorus ______________
Pertaining to the duodenum ______________
Pertaining to the ileum ______________
Pertaining to the epigastrium ______________
Pertaining to the colon ______________
Pertaining to the caecum ______________
Pertaining to the rectum ______________
Pertaining to the anus ______________
Pertaining to the liver ______________
Pertaining to the gallbladder ______________
Pertaining to the pancreas ______________
The Digestive System
The digestive system has two important functions: breaking down large food molecules into small molecules and absorbing small molecules into the body. Organs of the gastrointestinal tract include the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines. The accessory organs include the salivary glands, liver, and pancreas. The mouth receives food and prepares it for digestion by mechanically reducing the food mass and mixing it with saliva. There are three types of salivary glands secreting saliva into the oral cavity: parotid gland, submandibular (submaxillary) gland, and sublingual gland. The saliva helps moisten food particles, bind them together, and begin the breakdown of carbohydrate molecules. The food is chewed and mixed with saliva to form a bolus and is then forced to the pharynx by the tongue. Now it is ready for the involuntary phase of swallowing (deglutition).
The oesophagus is a straight, muscular tube connecting the pharynx to the stomach. The stomach is a C-shaped organ lying in the upper left part of the abdomen. Its major regions are the cardia (closest to the heart), fundus, body (the main part), and pylorus (the narrow far region). The internal surface of the stomach has folds (rugae), which are obvious when the stomach is empty and shrunken. The muscle layers churn food and physically break the bolus of food down into a soupy mixture called chyme. The gastric glands secrete gastric juice, which contains a variety of substances. Hydrochloric acid is necessary to activate the protein-digesting enzymes. Mucus protects the stomach wall from self-digestion. The major protein-digesting enzyme operating in the stomach is pepsin. Gastric juice contains the precursor substance, pepsinogen. In the presence of hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen converts to pepsin, which breaks large proteins into small proteins referred to as peptides. Some absorption occurs through the lining of the stomach. Substances absorbed include small amounts of water, glucose, ions, and alcohol. Peristaltic contractions force the chyme through the pyloric sphincter into the small intestine where the major amount of digestion takes place.
The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to a circular muscle called the ileocaecal sphincter. It is divided into three regions: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. Most digestion takes place in the duodenum. The duodenum receives chyme from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter. The pancreas contributes enzymes through the pancreatic duct, which enters the duodenum. Bile produced by the liver enters the duodenum through the common bile duct. Bile breaks down large fat globules into smaller globules which can be easily digested by lipase enzymes. A small amount of digestion and most absorption occurs in the jejunum and ileum. The surface contains finger-like projections called villi, which contain capillaries and lymph vessels.
The large intestine consists of the caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and anus. Extending from the caecum is a short vermiform appendix. Non-digested material enters the ascending colon from the ileum through the ileocecal valve. The transverse colon extends horizontally across the abdomen near the stomach and spleen. The transverse colon becomes the descending colon at the splenic flexure, where the colon turns downward. The descending colon lies in a vertical position on the left side of the abdomen. It joins with the sigmoid colon that descends downward and joins with the rectum. The rectum terminates at the anal canal, which terminates at the opening called the anus. The functions of the large intestine are to reabsorb water and ions. Approximately 300 to 400 ml of water are reabsorbed daily. The major ion absorbed in the large intestine is sodium. No chemical digestion occurs in the large intestine. Another important function of the large intestine is to absorb vitamins. The large intestine also stores the materials not digested by the body and forms the faeces. The faeces consists of water, inorganic salts, bacteria, epithelial cells shed by the gastrointestinal tract, and undigested food.
Post-Text Assignments Match the common term on the left with the medical term on the right.
roof of the mouth
hard and soft palate
Match the terms with their definitions.
the major portion of the large intestine; extends from the caecum to the rectum
a muscular saclike organ below the diaphragm that stores food and secretes juices that digest proteins
the first portion of the small intestine
a large gland in the upper right part of the abdomen. In addition to many other functions, it secretes bile for digestion of fats
the waste material eliminated from the intestine
common bile duct
a large elongated gland behind the stomach. It produces hormones that regulate sugar metabolism and also produces digestive enzymes
a blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine
a rounded mass of food that is swallowed
the middle portion of the small intestine
the duct that carries bile into the duodenum; formed by the union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct
the semiliquid partially digested food that moves from the stomach into the small intestine
tiny projections in the lining of the small intestine that absorb digested foods into the circulation
the large folds in the lining of the stomach seen when the stomach is empty
the muscular tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach
a sac on the undersurface of the liver that stores bile
the terminal portion of the small intestine
Find synonyms in the text to the following words.
to slough off
Match the words with the root “gastro” with their definitions.
inflammation of the lining of the stomach
a specialist who treats disorders of gastrointestinal tract
surgical removal of a part or the whole of the stomach
an opening into the stomach from the abdominal wall, made surgically for the introduction of food
a hormone which stimulates secretion of gastric juice and is secreted into the bloodstream by the stomach wall in response to the presence of food
pain in the stomach
a hard concretion in the stomach
relating to the stomach and the colon
the branch of medicine which deals with disorders of the stomach and intestines
a medical instrument for examining the interior of the stomach
surgical incision into the stomach
inflammation of the stomach and intestines
Circle the letter of the item that correctly completes each of the following statements. All the following are regions of the stomach except
A the fundus
B the cardia
C the pylorus
D the hilus
The precursor substance pepsinogen is converted to pepsin
D only when high concentrations of salt are present
All the following are regions of the small intestine except
A the jejunum
B the ileum
C the duodenum
D the pylorus
Bile, which is formed in the liver, assists the
A breakdown of proteins
B absorption of water
C emulsification of fats
D formation of faeces
Most absorption occurs in
A the oesophagus
B the jejunum
C the lining of the stomach
D along the gastrointestinal tract
Where the small intestine meets the large intestine, there is a section known as the
B sigmoid colon
The pancreas is located close to the
A sigmoid colon
All the following are functions of the oral cavity except
A to mechanically process foods
B to digest proteins
C to lubricate foods
D to digest certain carbohydrates
Add the word or words that correctly complete each of the following statements. The two main functions of the digestive system are digestion and __________ .
One of the major functions of the tongue is to work with saliva to form food into a mass called the ________ .
Within the cheeks of the head, below the ears is the largest salivary gland known as the __________ .
Lying under the tongue in the floor of the mouth is the salivary gland called the __________ .
Food passes into the stomach from the pharynx through a tube known as the __________ .
Swallowing is the process more correctly known as ____________ .
The series of wavelike contractions that brings food into the stomach is called __________ .
The circular muscle at the beginning of the stomach is the cardiac sphincter, while the circular muscle at the end of the stomach is the _____________ .
The narrow far region of the stomach is the _________ .
The most important acid in digestion taking place in the stomach is ________ .
The enzymes of the stomach do not digest the stomach wall because the wall is protected by _________ .
The main protein-digesting enzyme in the stomach is known as ______ .
In the stomach food is converted to a soupy mixture known as _________ .
A variety of enzymes enters the duodenum from a large gland known as ___________ .
Before fats can be digested into their component fatty acids, they must be broken into smaller globules by the liver substance called _____________ .
The short wormlike extension of tissue where the small and large intestines meet is called the ___________ .
A major function of the large intestine is to reabsorb ions and ___________ .
For use in the digestive process, bile is stored in a sac called the _________ .
For each of the following statements, mark the letter T next to the statement if it is true. If the statement is false, change the underlined word to make the statement true. The salivary gland located under the tongue is the submandibular gland.
Peristalsis brings the bolus of food through the oesophagus to the pyloric sphincter.
The internal surface of the stomach has many folds called rugae.
In the stomach a bolus of food is converted to a soupy liquid known as kinin.
Most digestion in the body goes on in an organ called the largeintestine.
Finger-like projections of the mucosa of the jejunum are called villi.
The small and large intestine meet in the lower right quadrant of the thorax.
There are ascending, transverse, and descending portions of the small intestine.
Read the text and fill in the missing words.
The digestive system is mainly a long tube that runs from the _________ to the ___________ . This tube is called the ________, or alimentary canal. The alimentary canal is associated with the organs of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas. These organs assist digestion by secreting _________ that help break down the food so that it can be easily absorbed by the body. The digestion of food begins in the mouth with chewing and ends in the _________. Any undigested food is eliminated from the body via the anus. There are two forms of digestion. _________ involves the mechanical processes of chewing in the mouth and churning due to the backward and forward motion of the stomach walls. ___________ is the use of enzymes to break down the food into smaller particles that can be absorbed into the body.
Read and translate the text. Fill in the gaps with appropriate prepositions.
The liver is a vital organ present ____ vertebrates and some other animals. It has a wide range _____ functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production ____ biochemicals necessary ____ digestion. The liver is necessary ____ survival; there is currently no way to compensate ____ the absence ___ liver function long term, although liver dialysis can be used short term.
This organ plays a major role _____ metabolism and has a number ____ functions ____ the body, including glycogen storage, decomposition _____ red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and detoxification. It lies below the diaphragm ____ the abdominal-pelvic region ____ the abdomen. It produces bile, an alkaline compound which aids ____ digestion via the emulsification of lipids. The liver’s highly specialized tissues regulate a wide variety ____ high-volume biochemical reactions, including the synthesis and breakdown ____ small and complex molecules, many ____ which are necessary _____ normal vital functions.
The liver is a reddish brown organ with four lobes ____ unequal size and shape. A human liver normally weighs 1.44–1.66 kg (3.2–3.7 lb), and is a soft, pinkish-brown, triangular organ. It is both the largest internal organ (the skin being the largest organ overall) and the largest gland ____ the human body. It is located ____ the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity, resting just below the diaphragm. The liver lies ___ the right ___ the stomach and overlies the gallbladder. It is connected ___ two large blood vessels, one called the hepatic artery and one called the portal vein. The hepatic artery carries blood ____ the aorta, whereas the portal vein carries blood containing digested nutrients from the entire gastrointestinal tract and ____ the spleen and pancreas. These blood vessels subdivide ____ capillaries, which then lead to a lobule. Each lobule is made up ___ millions of hepatic cells which are the basic metabolic cells.
Match the beginnings and endings of the sentences.
Water-soluble digested products are
physical and chemical digestion.
Fat-soluble products are
absorbed directly into the bloodstream and transported to the liver.
Water is absorbed from the undigested
in the mouth by the action of the enzyme salivary amylase.
Digestion in humans involves
and hydrochloric acid which digest the food.
The digestion of carbohydrates begins
absorbed into the lacteals and transported to the liver.
The stomach contains gastric juices
the acid chyme.
Bile from the liver neutralizes
amylase, lipase and trypsin which break down sugars, fats and proteins in the food.
Pancreatic juice contains three enzymes:
food in the colon leaving behind the soft solid waste called faeces.
Answer the following questions. What are the main functions of the digestive system?
Which organs of the digestive system can you name?
What are the accessory organs of the digestive system?
What happens to food in the mouth?
How does food travel to the stomach?
What is the structure of the stomach?
What substances help to digest food in the stomach?
What regions compose the small intestine?
Where does most digestion take place?
Which parts compose the large intestine?
What are the functions of the large intestine?
How are wastes excreted from the body?
Translate into English.
В середньому довжина травного каналу дорослої людини становить 7,5 метрів і складається з таких відділів: ротової порожнини із зубами, язиком і слинними залозами; глотки; стравоходу; шлунка; тонкої кишки (дванадцятипалої кишки; порожньої кишки; клубової кишки); товстої кишки (сліпої кишки з червоподібним відростком; ободової кишки, що складається з висхідної ободової кишки; поперечної ободової кишки; низхідної ободової кишки; сигмоподібної кишки; прямої кишки з широкою частиною – ампулою прямої кишки, і дистальною, нижньою частиною – задньопрохідним каналом із анальним отвором).
Перетравлення їжі відбувається під дією ряду речовин – ферментів, що містяться у виділеннях у травного соку, що декретується з декількох великих залоз. У ротову порожнину відкриваються протоки слинних залоз. Виділена ними слина змочує ротову порожнину і їжу, сприяє її перемішуванню та формуванню харчової грудки. Також за участю ферментів слини амілази і мальтози у ротовій порожнині починається перетравлення вуглеводів.
У тонку кишку, а саме в дванадцятипалу, виділяються сік підшлункової залози і золотисто-жовтий секрет печінки – жовч. Сік підшлункової залозимістить бікарбонати і ряд ферментів, наприклад, трипсин, хімотрипсин, ліпазу, панкреатичну амілазу, а також нуклеази. Жовч, перш ніж потрапити в кишку, накопичується в жовчному міхурі. Ферменти жовчі поділяють жири на дрібні краплі, що пришвидшує їх розщеплення ліпазою.
Grammar: The Gerund
The Gerund is the –ing form of the verb but it is used in the same way as a noun either as the subject or object of the verb or on its own.
It is the most commonly used as follows:
a. to describe general activities or abstract ideas
e.g. Walking always gives one an appetite.
e.g. Laughing and being happy really do help the body to cure itself.
b. in conversation
e.g. What’s your idea of living healthy life?
e.g. Work at pleasure, eating with measure and enjoying life as it is.
Forms of the Gerund.
having been studied
Complete the following sentences choosing suitable words from the box.
removing, performing, walking, looking, turning,
being, taking, crying, bleeding, relieving
You can improve the function of the intestines by __________ fibre supplements.
Erosions, ulcers and tumours can cause __________ .
___________ will not mend matters.
Medications are an important part of __________ symptoms of gastric ulcer.
Instead of ________ for everything that’s wrong in the world, look for what’s funny.
Patients say the discomfort often comes when they start ____________ .
The young doctor began _________ over the pages of his patient’s case report.
________ a first-year medical student I dreamt of __________ an operation myself.
Haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are not effective means of ______ the compound from the blood.
Pay attention to the - ing form in the following sentences. My colleague went out of the ward without saying a word.
This student likes surfing the Internet looking for the medical articles in his speciality.
The initial diagnosis must be made before the patient’s being admitted to the in-patient department.
I think trusting your doctor is very important.
Don’t put off seeing the doctor.
She pretended being ill.
I remember having been reported this interesting case.
This patient denied the doctor having spoken to him previously.
Having received the necessary findings we summarized them in the article published recently.
After being stored in the gallbladder the bile becomes more concentrated than when it left the liver.
The gerund is used after the verbs and verbal phrases: stop, avoid, postpone, cannot help, begin, like, start, finish, admit, go on, enjoy, give up, dislike, mind, delay, burst out, deny, forgive, can’t stand
Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian. There are millions of people all over the world who gave up smoking.
He didn’t mind of being examined by a doctor: he stopped pretending of feeling well.
You can avoid being operated on if you follow the proper course of conservative treatment for gastric and duodenal ulcer.
The gastric glands begin secreting before food enters the stomach.
Toothache sufferers sometimes delay going to the dentist’s in fear of greater and more severe pain.
The doctor can use the endoscope to stop internal bleeding or to take a stomach biopsy.
Little boy burst out crying when the doctor started palpating the lower boundary of his liver.
The majority of Crohn’s disease victims go on living normal active lives after colectomy.
The patient couldn’t help wondering his rapid recovery having survived a grave malady.
The girl complained she couldn’t stand tolerating cramps and severely pain on the bottom of her stomach.
Memorize the following verbs and expressions with fixed prepositions requiring the Gerund after them.
to accuse of
to agree to
to approve of
to be afraid of
to complain of
to depend on
to dream of
to feel like
to give up the idea of
to insist on
to look forward to
to object to
to persist in
to prevent from
to succeed in
to suspect of
to thank for
to think of
Define the –ing forms. Find the sentences in which Gerund is used. Render them into Ukrainian. The cardiac sphincter prevents food from passing back to the oesophagus.
World famous Zaporizhya doctor professor Nikonenko O.S. succeeded in transplantating vitally important internal organs as: heart, liver and kidney.
The woman was afraid of being admitted to the hospital.
The doctor insisted on doubling the dose of anti-anaemia preparation to the patient with pernicious anaemia.
Young patient complained of having severe headaches which weren’t relieved by taking medicines.
The attending doctor didn’t approve of her drinking so much coffee.
Quick recovery depends on your following the prescribed course of treatment and diet.
Having survived the operation my friend says he doesn’t feel like eating a lot of food.
We are looking forward to seeing you again here in Truskavets next autumn.
My former groupmate never thought of becoming a gastroenterologist.
Psychotherapeutist advised the patient to give up the idea of feeling as if he was out of control because it led to stress.
Neurosurgeons persist in finding a cure for Parkinson’s disease, which usually afflicts people who have had encephalitis.
The Gerund can be preceded by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun.
e.g. I don’t like Jane’s going home from the in-patient department without any permission.
e.g. Is there any objection to my examining this patient?
Object forms are possible instead of possessives. They are less formal.
e.g. I don’t like Jane going home from the in-patient department without any permission.
e.g. Is there any objection to me examining this patient?
Make these sentences less formal. Do you mind my taking your blood pressure?
What’s the use of their asking these questions to the nurse?
I hope you will forgive my disturbing you.
The delay was caused by Peter’s coming to see a doctor.
What’s the use of their taking medicines without prescriptions?
The surgeon was indignant at his patient’s having disobeyed him.
He didn’t like the idea of his being treated for such a long period of time.
Speaking Read the text and complete it with the sentences from the box.
Anything in the ileum that is water-soluble, such as water-soluble vitamins, minerals, water, glucose, fructose and amino acids, is absorbed into the blood capillaries.
Inside the villus is a network of many blood vessels.
The process of absorption begins in the ileum.
The villi increase the surface area for absorption.
The walls of the ileum are covered with tiny finger-like projections called villi.
The surface layer of each villus is only one cell thick which allows the digested food to be absorbed easily.
It also contains a central lymph vessel called the lacteal which will transport the food molecules that have been absorbed.
The blood transports them to the liver. Fat-soluble products, such as fatty acids, glycerol and fat-soluble vitamins, are absorbed into the lacteal and then transported to the liver.
Read the text and fill in the grid. Leave the cell blank if the information is not in the text.
Digestion in the small intestine
Unlike the stomach, the small intestine is alkaline since the digestive juices released here cannot function under acidic conditions. The small intestine is divided into two parts: the duodenum, the upper section, and the lower section which is called the ileum.
As the chyme enters the duodenum, pancreatic juice is secreted from the pancreas and bile is released from the liver. The pancreatic juice contains three enzymes. Trypsin is the enzyme which continues the digestion of protein into polypeptides and also into even smaller units called amino acids. Amylase continues the digestion of starch which began in the mouth. Any starch that is still present is digested to maltose and glucose units. Lipase begins the digestion of fats and oils into smaller units called fatty acids and glycerol.
The bile from the liver is very alkaline and so it neutralizes the chyme. By the time the food reaches the ileum, most of the complex food substances have been broken down into very small particles. Enzymes, released in the ileum, complete the digestion process by breaking down polyptides from protein foods, into their smallest unit – amino acids. The enzymes also break down fats from fats and oils to fatty acids and glycerol. Sugars such as maltose from carbohydrate foods, are broken down to their smallest units – fructose and glucose. Vitamins, minerals and water in the food do not need to be broken down into smaller units because they are small enough to be absorbed as they are.