варікоцеле (варикозне розширення вен сім’яного канатика)
II. Translate and memorize the following words and phrases. Then use them in the sentences of your own.
Congenital abnormality; stress and anxiety; acquire; bright red and pink spots; patches of mucus; adhesions between the bowel and the uterus; obstruction of uterine tubes; to result from mumps; destruction of the testes; erosion; to erupt from infections.
III. Match the following terms with their definitions.
the accumulation of serous fluid in a body sac
a venereal disease involving inflammatory discharge from the urethra or vagina
the fact of not being fertile, not able to reproduce
the inability in a male to have an erection or to ejaculate, and so have sexual intercourse
a condition resulting from the appearance of endometrial tissue outside the womb and causing pelvic pain
an abnormal absence of menstruation
persistent and painful erection of the penis
a mass of varicose veins in the spermatic cord
the gradual destruction of tissue by physical or chemical action
inflammation of one or both of the testicles
V. Match the following Ukrainian words and word combinations with the English ones.
A reproductive disorder is a generic term which refers to all the diseases that affect the reproductive system in human beings and prevents reproduction. Such disorders may arise from genetic or congenital abnormalities, such as hermaphroditism, from functional problems such as impotence or infertility or reproductive tract infections, such as sexually transmitted diseases. They include all the acquired diseases, diseases erupting from unknown causes and infections, and sometimes abnormal functioning of glands relating to secretion of sex hormones. Reproductive disorders or diseases can affect both women and men.
Amenorrhoea is one of the most common reproductive system diseases in women and is characterized by the woman facing some difficulty in menstruation.
Primary amenorrhoea is when the patient does not get her periods by the age of 16. The probable causes for primary amenorrhoea are: an abnormality in the vaginal structure, the absence of a major reproductive organ, a pituitary disease or chromosomal abnormalities. Secondary amenorrhoea takes place when a woman was menstruating previously, but then stopped getting her periods. It has many possible causes, which include: body weight and eating disorders, stress and anxiety, the use of certain medications, hormonal imbalances, etc.
Cervical erosion is another rather common condition in which the formation of ulcers around the cervix region occurs. The most prominent symptom of this development includes bright red and pink spots along with the shedding of patches of mucus.
Reproductive infertility is failure to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Body weight is the most significant factor in causing female infertility. In women of normal weight, fat cells produce a hormone called leptin that stimulates hypothalamus to free Gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In overweight women, ovaries often contain many small follicles, and woman fails to ovulate. Other causes of infertility in females block uterine tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease and endometriosis.
Pelvic inflammatory disease refers to infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes and other reproductive organs that causes symptoms such as lower abdominal pain. It is a serious complication of some sexually transmitted diseases, especially Chlamydia and gonorrhoea. Pelvic inflammatory disease can damage the fallopian tubes and tissues in and near the uterus and ovaries. It can lead to serious consequences including infertility due to obstruction of uterine tubes, ectopic pregnancy (a pregnancy in the fallopian tube or elsewhere outside of the womb), intestinal obstruction due to adhesions between the bowel and the uterus and/or uterine tubes, abscess formation, and chronic pelvic pain.
Endometriosis, a cause of female infertility, is a condition in which endometrial tissue, the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus, grows outside the uterus and attaches to other organs in the abdominal cavity. The most common locations for these growths – called endometrial implants – are the outside surface of the uterus, the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the ligaments that support the uterus, the intestines, the bladder, the internal area between the vagina and rectum, and the lining of the pelvic cavity. Endometriosis is a progressive disease that tends to get worse over time and can reoccur after treatment. Symptoms include painful menstrual periods, abnormal menstrual bleeding and pain during or after sexual intercourse.
The common causes of male infertility are deficiencies in maturation of sperm; orchitis (acute inflammation of the testes often resulting from mumps), with destruction of the testes; obstruction of the passageways for sperm; abnormally low thyroid or high adrenal secretion; varicocele (enlargement of the veins of the spermatic cord); or formation of antibodies to sperm by the male or the female.
Gynaecomastia is a disease caused by the hormonal imbalance in men and it is manifested through the abnormal swelling or enlargement of the breasts in men. Typically, it afflicts only one breast.
Hydrocele is characterized by accumulation of fluids in and around testes. The causes of the disease are direct physical injury to testes or internal disturbances. This is an asymptomatic condition and if left untreated may lead to testicular tumours.
Priapism refers to painful erection. In this condition, the enlarged part becomes tender and painful leading to constant pain during erection.