Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С


Unit 26 Renal Diseases



Сторінка343/391
Дата конвертації24.01.2021
Розмір5.7 Mb.
1   ...   339   340   341   342   343   344   345   346   ...   391
Unit 26

Renal Diseases

Conditionals

Pre-Text Assignments

I. Learn the following words.

bacteraemia, n

["bxktq'rJmIq]

бактеріемія

cloudy, adj

['klaVdI]

мутний, непрозорий

crystal, n

['krIstl]

кристал

glomerulus, n

pl glomeruli

[glP'merVles]

pl [glP'merVlaI]

клубочок

nephritis, n

['nI'fraItIs]

нефрит

pyelonephritis, n

["paIqlqVnI'fraItIs]

пієлонефрит

strep, n /

streptococcus, n



[strep] ["streptq'kPkqs]

стрептокок

tubal, adj

['tjHbql]

трубний

uremia, n

[jV'rJmIq]

сечокрів’я

urination, n

["jVqrI'neISn]

сечовипускання


II. Match the following terms with their definitions.

fever

excreting or voiding urine

operation

a very large group of microorganisms comprising one of the three domains of living organisms

urination

an abnormally high body temperature, accompanied by a fast pulse rate, dry skin, etc.

bacteria

the act of putting together or making up by combining parts or ingredients

pyelonephritis

a hard mass formed in the kidney, usually composed of oxalates, phosphates, and carbonates

kidney stones

any manipulation of the body or one of its organs or parts to repair damage, arrest the progress of a disease, remove foreign matter, etc.

colic

the act of removing or state of being removed

composition

an inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis

recovery

the act or process of recovering, esp. from sickness, a shock

removal

a condition characterized by acute spasmodic abdominal pain, esp. that caused by inflammation, distensions, etc., of the gastrointestinal tract


III. The table below contains words that have been chopped in half. Find the pieces that fit together and write them on a separate sheet of paper. The first one has been done for you.

For example: excre+tion=excretion

bact

cysti

tension

ac

tion

eremia

neph

nephritis

cium

glome

ment

reco

quire

hyper

rulus

treat

very

excre

nuria

cal

pyelo

ritis

ation

toxic


IV. The following words are lacking vowels. Write in the vowels, translate the words into Ukrainian and practise saying them. The first word has been found for you as an example.

Example: crstl – crystal

dss kdn


blddr hmstss

chmcl hrdtr

cqrd nphrts

cstnr cngntl

ftg hprtnsn

txn crstl


V. Match the following Ukrainian word/word combinations with the English one/ones.

запобігати

to notice blood in urine

помітити кров у сечі

to cause stone formation

роздавлювати

a solid mass

відчувати біль

to feel pain

тверда маса

to drink large amounts of water

спричиняти утворення каменя

to crush

пити велику кількість води

the surgical removal of a stone

хірургічне видалення каменя

to determine chemical composition

дозволяти

to prevent

визначати хімічний склад

to allow


Renal Diseases

The composition of blood is kept constant mainly through the selective elimination of water and solutes by the kidneys rather than by these materials in food. This control involves balancing the body’s input of ions and water with the amounts excreted. Disease of kidneys, and in some instances of the ureter, bladder and urethra, reduce the efficiency of the kidney’s functions, disturbances in protein, acid-base solute and water homeostasis and in excretion of the metabolic end-products will result.

Kidney disease usually affects both kidneys. If the kidneys’ ability to remove and regulate water and chemicals is seriously damaged by disease, waste products and excess fluid build up occur, causing severe swelling and symptoms of uremia (kidney failure).

There are many different types and causes of kidney disease. These can be characterized as hereditary, congenital or acquired.



Hereditary Disorders. These can be transmitted to both males and females, and generally produce clinical symptoms from teenage years to adulthood. The most prevalent hereditary kidney condition is polycystic kidney disease. Other hereditary conditions include Alport’s syndrome, hereditary nephritis, primary hyperoxaluria and cystinuria.

Congenital Disease. This usually involves some malformation of the genitourinary tract, usually leading to some type of obstruction which subsequently produces infection and/or destruction of kidney tissue. The destruction can eventually progress to chronic kidney failure.

Acquired Kidney Disease. These diseases are numerous, the general term being nephritis. It is inflammation of the glomeruli, small round filters located in the kidney. The most common type of nephritis is glomerulonephritis.

Acute glomerulonephritis usually develops a few weeks after a strep infection of the throat or skin. Symptoms of glomerulonephritis include fatigue, high blood pressure, and swelling (especially in the hands, feet, ankles and face). With proper medical treatment, symptoms usually subside within a few weeks, or at the most, a few months.

Pyelonephritis usually occurs suddenly, and the acute form of this disease is more common in adult women. It is commonly caused when bacteria are carried into the urinary tract by the backward flow of urine from the bladder. Symptoms include fever and chills, fatigue, burning or frequent urination, cloudy or bloody urine, and aching pain on one of both sides of the lower back or abdomen. It can be treated successfully if diagnosed early. Follow-up urinalysis studies will determine if the patient remains bacteria-free. If the infection is not cured or continues to recur, it can lead to serious complications such as bacteraemia (bacterial invasion of the bloodstream), hypertension, chronic pyelonephritis and even permanent kidney damage. Patients who are severely ill with acute pyelonephritis may need to be hospitalized.

Kidney stones are solid accumulations of material that form in the tubal system of the kidney. They are very common, and when they pass, the pain can be extremely severe in the side and back. Stone formation can be an inherited disorder, secondary to a malformation or infection in the kidney, or can occur without any prior problem. The pain can appear suddenly and in waves, and then disappear rapidly when the stone is passed. Sometimes, tiny crystals called “silent stones” may form in the urine that never cause any pain. Kidney stones cause problems when they interfere with the normal flow of urine. They can block the flow down the ureter – the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. Because the kidney isn’t used to feeling any pressure, when pressure builds from backed-up urine the kidney may swell. If the kidney is subjected to this pressure for some time, it may damage delicate kidney structures.

Nephrotic syndrome refers to a large protein loss in the urine frequently in association with low blood protein levels, an elevated blood cholesterol and severe retention of body fluid, causing swelling. This disease can be a primary disorder of the kidney or secondary to an illness, affecting many parts of the body.

Long-standing high blood pressure (hypertension) can cause kidney disease itself or can be a result of a kidney disorder. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can accelerate the natural course of any underlying kidney disease. Long standing diabetes can lead to kidney failure. However, tight control of blood glucose levels over the years may reduce those complications. Certain medications, toxins, pesticides and “street” drugs (i.e., heroin) can also produce kidney damage.


Post-Text Assignments
I. Arrange the following words in pairs of synonyms.

substance

calculus

bout

surroundings

solid

matter

interfere

avoid

environment

permit

subside

decide

determine

interpose

prevent

attack

stone

firm

allow

become less


II. Translate and memorize the following words and phrases.

a) a substance that makes the urine less acidic; to cling to each other; a solid mass; to notice blood in urine; to move closer to the bladder; to feel pain in the vulva; to determine chemical composition; a number of reasons for stone formation; surgical removal of a stone; to allow the stone to be crushed; to be removed through an incision; to prevent certain types of kidney stones; the cause of stone formation.

b) стрептококова інфекція горла чи шкіри; бути розмішеним у нирці; вітамінні добавки; виникати раптово; гостра форма захворювання; часте сечовипускання; пити багато рідини; тверде накопичення; блокувати потік сечі; розчиняти речовини; наявність каміння; помічати кров у сечі; спричинити утворення каміння; приймати сечогінні препарати; подрібнювати каміння.
III. Arrange the following words in pairs of antonyms.

constant

temporary

primary

slight

different

last

hereditary

similar

excrete

rare

adulthood

intermittent

numerous

acquired

common

absorb

permanent

childhood

severe

few


IV. In each set of words one is the odd one out: different from the others. Find the word that is different and say why.

For example:

nephritis pyelonephritis kidney

Kidney is the odd one out. It is an organ; the others are kidney diseases.




1.

nephritis

pyelonephritis

kidney

kidney

2.

fever

fatigue

urine




3.

glomerulonephritis

kidney

ureter




4.

symptoms

signs

inflammation




5.

treatment

pyelonephritis

polycystic kidney disease




6.

stone

swelling

calculus




7.

patient’s history

urine test

X-ray




8.

blood

urine

drugs




9.

removal

surgery

complication




10.

blood analysis

urinalysis

case history





V. Match the terms with their definitions.

nephritis

inflammation of a kidney

cystitis

exceeding the normal or permitted excreting of urine

renal failure

inflammation of the urinary bladder

bacteraemia

the act or an instance of the kidney failing

bout

bacterial invasion of the bloodstream

excessive urination

a period of illness

glomerulonephritis

any of various kidney diseases in which the glomeruli are affected


VI. Complete the following sentences choosing suitable words form the box.


acute, urine, flow, surgical, patient, supplements,

inflammation, water, kidneys, urination




  1. _________ glomerulonephritis usually develops a few weeks after a strep infection of the throat or skin.

  2. Iron and vitamin _______ may be recommended if the patient becomes anaemic.

  3. Diuretics may be prescribed to increase _______ .

  4. Nephritis is ________ of the glomeruli, small round filters located in the kidney.

  5. Kidney stones cause painful problems when they block the flow of _________ through or out of the kidney.

  6. Urine is formed by the _____________ .

  7. Kidney stones cause problems when they interfere with the normal ______ of urine.

  8. ________ removal of a stone may become necessary when a stone appears too large to pass.

  9. Drinking several quarts of ________ every day is an important way to head off the problem.

  10. Stones may pass more quickly if the _________ is encouraged to drink large amounts of water.


VII. Complete the sentences by filling the gaps with the correct words or expressions.

Because the ureters are muscular tubes, the presence of a stone will make these muscular tubes ______, causing severe pain.

hygiene

Sometimes, tiny crystals called “silent stones” may form in the urine that never __________ any pain.

urinalysis

Symptoms of _________ include fatigue, high blood pressure, and swelling (especially in the hands, feet, ankles and face).

suddenly

Pyelonephritis usually occurs _________, and the acute form of this disease is more common in adult women.

spasm

Follow-up __________ studies will determine if the patient remains bacteria-free.

acid

Pyelonephritis can best be avoided if those with a history of urinary tract infections drink plenty of fluids, urinate frequently, and practice good _________ following urination.

cause

Kidney stones cause problems when they interfere with the normal ___________ of urine.

glomerulonephritis

If a _________ stone is present, some people may notice blood in their urine, but patients don’t usually notice symptoms until the stones pass into the ureter.

kidney

About 2% of all kidney stones are stones made of cystine, a type of amino __________ .

flow

Nausea, vomiting, extremely frequent and _________ urination, and obvious blood in the urine are common signs of kidney stones.

painful


VIII. Complete the sentences by choosing appropriate prepositions from the box. Translate the complete sentences into Ukrainian.


of

of, in


to, for

in, between

to


with, within

with, through

with, of, on, of

because of,



in, with




        1. _______ patients ________ high blood pressure, drugs may be prescribed to lower blood pressure.

        2. _________ proper medical treatment, symptoms usually subside ________ a few weeks.

        3. If the infection is not cured or continues to recur, it can lead __________ serious complications such as bacteremia, hypertension, chronic pyelonephritis and even permanent kidney damage.

        4. Antibiotics will be prescribed, ______ the length ______ treatment based _______ the severity ________ the infection.

        5. Patients may be able to prevent certain types ________ kidney stones.

        6. The pain usually begins _______ the area ______ the lower ribs and the hip bone.

        7. About 5% of all kidney stones are uric acid stones, which occur when higher amounts ______ uric acid circulate ________ the blood.

        8. If the kidney is subjected ______ this pressure _____ some time, it may damage delicate kidney structures.

        9. Patients who are severely ill ______ acute pyelonephritis may need to be hospitalized.

        10. If the patient is vomiting or unable to drink ______ the pain, it may be necessary to provide fluids __________ a vein.


IX. Make ten questions somebody may ask concerning kidney diseases. The following suggestions may help you.

              1. What kidney diseases …?

              2. What is …?

              3. What symptoms …?

              4. What diet may be prescribed …?

              5. Are kidney stones …?

              6. In what cases is the surgical removal …?

              7. Can pyelonephritis be avoided …?

              8. Does the nephritic syndrome refer to …?

              9. What is the urine analyzed for when a patient …?

              10. What are the main measures to prevent …?


X. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Comment upon your answer.

              1. Nephritis is inflammation of the bladder.

              2. Symptoms of glomerulonephritis include fatigue, high blood pressure, and swelling.

              3. Pyelonephritis does not occur suddenly, and the acute form of this disease is more common in adult women.

              4. Patients who are severely ill with acute pyelonephritis may need to be hospitalized.

              5. Congenital conditions include Alport’s syndrome, hereditary nephritis, primary hyperoxaluria and cystinuria.

              6. Hereditary diseases are numerous, the general term being nephritis.

              7. Kidney stones are solid accumulations of material that form in the tubal system of the ureters.

              8. Urine is formed by the kidneys.

              9. Kidney stones cause painful problems when they block the flow of urine through or out of the kidney.

              10. Pyelonephritis cannot be avoided if patients with a history of urinary tract infections drink plenty of fluids, urinate frequently, and practice good hygiene following urination.

              11. Diuretics are prescribed to increase urination.


XI. Answer the following questions.

        1. What are the main types of kidney diseases?

        2. What are hereditary kidney disorders?

        3. What condition is called “congenital kidney diseases”?

        4. What is meant under the term “acquired kidney diseases”?

        5. What is nephritis?

        6. What do the symptoms of glomerulonephritis include?

        7. What is pyelonephritis commonly caused by?

        8. What symptoms does pyelonephritis show?

        9. What do people with stones in the kidneys suffer from?

        10. What is the diagnosis of kidney stones based on?


XII. Translate the following sentences into English.

  1. Хвороби нирок бувають спадкові, вроджені та набуті.

  2. Нирковокам’яна хвороба характеризується утворенням каміння у паренхімі нирок і сечовивідних органах.

  3. В етіології нирковокам’яної хвороби мають значення такі фактори: якісний склад води та харчових продуктів, режим вживання напоїв і прийняття їжі.

  4. Вважається, що споживання сильно мінералізованої питної води з великим вмістом солей кальцію, недостатність у їжі білків, вітамінів групи В сприяють утворенню каміння у нирках.

  5. Неорганічна та органічна сполуки – два важливі елементи у структурі каміння.

  6. Ниркові конкременти спричиняють проблеми, коли вони перешкоджають нормальному сечовипусканню.

  7. У вираженій формі нирковокам’яна хвороба характеризується приступами ниркової кольки, гематурією, гарячкою, лейкоцитозом.

  8. Якщо камінь є надто великим, його необхідно видаляти хірургічним способом.

  9. Гломерулонефрит – інфекційно-алергічне захворювання нирок.

  10. Пієлонефрит – інфекційне запалення тканини нирки та ниркової миски.


Grammar: Conditionals


Conditionals

Type

If-clause

Main-clause

Application

III

Past Perfect

(I had done)



Future Perfect in the Past

(would have done)



a hypothetical situation in the past is contrary to known facts

I wouldn’t have got wet if I had taken an umbrella


I. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

        1. If I had realized what a bad urologist you were, I wouldn’t have come to visit you when I had glomerulonephritis.

        2. If you had treated patients with diuretics, they would have recovered faster.

        3. If he had known the diseases of the kidneys, he would not have failed the test.

        4. If she had follower doctor’s advice, she would not have developed kidney failure.

        5. If he hadn’t been so busy, he would have examined you.

        6. If the road from the hostel had been better, we would not have been late for the lectures.

        7. If you had arrived ten minutes earlier, the chemist’s wouldn’t have closed.

        8. If there hadn’t been any stones, the kidney wouldn’t have swollen.


II. Complete the sentences.

              1. If he had taken my advice, ... .

              2. If I’d passed the anatomy exam, ... .

              3. If you had asked the doctor’s permission, ... .

              4. Unless it is a nice day, ... .

              5. If you had got up earlier this morning, ... .

              6. If the symptoms of pyelonephritis had been noticed earlier, ... .

        1. If I were you, ... .

  1. We’ll send for the doctor if ... .

  2. I would have missed the operation if ... .


III. Translate the sentences into English paying attention to the Conditional sentences Type I, ІІ and III.

        1. Якби автомобіль не їхав так швидко, то водій не потрапив би до лікарні.

        2. Якщо він не прийде завтра, викладач не підпише його залікову книжку.

        3. Якщо я побачу його на конференції, ми дискутуватимемо про новітні методи лікування пієлонефриту.

        4. Цього б не сталося, якби швидка приїхала вчасно.

        5. Хворому доведеться піти в лікарню завтра, якщо йому не буде краще.

        6. Було б дуже люб’язно з вашого боку, якби ви могли призначити мені дієту необхідну при лікуванні нирковокам’яної хвороби.

        7. Чому ви не покликали хірурга? Я певен, що він прийшов би, якби його покликали.

        8. Мені потрібно було багато часу, щоб перекласти цю статтю про гломерулонефрит – інфекційно-алергічне захворювання нирок. Якби ви мені дали хороший словник, я б витратив менше часу.

        9. Вона б не хворіла на пієлонефрит часто, якби одягалася тепліше.

        10. Куди б ви пішли, якби були зараз вільні?


Speaking

I. Skim through the text and find the sentences expressing its main idea.
II. Compose short dialogues on the following topics:

  • Kidney stones attack causes and types.

  • Kidney stones diagnosis.

  • Kidney stones treatment and prevention.

  • Nephritis forms and causes.

  • Nephritis signs and symptoms.


Humour

A doctor apologized for keeping an elderly woman waiting so long in his office.

“That’s all right,” she said. “I just thought you’d like to treat my kidney failure while it was in its early stages!”
Supplementary Reading

I. Read the text and give answers to the questions.

              1. What is dialysis?

              2. What is the death rate for dialysis patients?

              3. What amount of blood is filtered by a healthy person’s kidneys each day?

              4. What types of dialysis are there?

              5. What are the peculiarities of the haemodialysis?

              6. What are the peculiarities of the peritoneal dialysis?

              7. Is it possible for dialysis patients to go on vocation?

              8. What effect does dialysis have on female fertility?


    1. Поділіться з Вашими друзьями:
1   ...   339   340   341   342   343   344   345   346   ...   391


База даних захищена авторським правом ©res.in.ua 2019
звернутися до адміністрації

    Головна сторінка