The “urinary system” may also be called the “renal system” or “genito-urinary system” because this group of interconnected body parts process a liquid substance called urine via special organs called the kidneys.
The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The kidneys are the primary organs of the urinary system. They are the organs that filter the blood, remove the wastes, excrete the wastes in the urine, and perform the functions of the urinary system. The other components are accessory structures to eliminate the urine from the body. The paired kidneys are located between the twelfth thoracic and third lumbar vertebrae, one on each side of the vertebral column. The right kidney usually is slightly lower than the left because the liver displaces it downward. The kidneys, protected by the lower ribs, lie in shallow depressions against the posterior abdominal wall and behind the parietal peritoneum. This means they are retroperitoneal. Each kidney is held in place by connective tissue, called renal fascia, and is surrounded by a thick layer of adipose tissue, called perirenal fat, which helps to protect it. A tough, fibrous, connective tissue renal capsule closely envelopes each kidney and provides support for the soft tissue that is inside.
In the adult, each kidney is approximately 3 cm thick, 6 cm wide, and 12 cm long. It is roughly bean-shaped with an indentation, called the hilum, on the medial side. The hilum leads to a large cavity, called the renal sinus, within the kidney.
The outer, reddish region, next to the capsule, is the renal cortex. This surrounds a darker reddish-brown region called the renal medulla. The renal medulla consists of a series of renal pyramids, which appear striated because they contain straight tubular structures and blood vessels. The wide bases of the pyramids are adjacent to the cortex and the pointed ends, called renal papillae, are directed toward the centre of the kidney. Portions of the renal cortex extend into the spaces between adjacent pyramids to form renal columns. The cortex and medulla make up the parenchyma, or functional tissue, of the kidney. The central region of the kidney contains the renal pelvis, which is located in the renal sinus, and is continuous with the ureter. The renal pelvis is a large cavity that collects the urine as it is produced. Each kidney contains over a million functional units, called nephrons, in the parenchyma (cortex and medulla). A nephron has two parts: a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule.
Each ureter is a small tube, about 25 cm long, that carries urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. The wall of the ureter consists of three layers. The outer layer, the fibrous coat, is a supporting layer of fibrous connective tissue. The middle layer, the muscular coat, consists of the inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle. The main function of the muscular coat is peristalsis: to propel the urine. The inner layer, the mucosa, is transitional epithelium that is continuous with the lining of the renal pelvis and the urinary bladder.
The urinary bladder is a temporary storage reservoir for urine. It is located in the pelvic cavity, posterior to the symphysis pubis, and below the parietal peritoneum. The size and shape of the urinary bladder varies with the amount of urine it contains and with the pressure it receives from surrounding organs.
The final passageway for the flow of urine is the urethra, a thin-walled tube that conveys urine from the floor of the urinary bladder to the outside. The opening to the outside is the external urethral orifice. The internal urethral sphincter surrounds the beginning of the urethra, where it leaves the urinary bladder.
Each part of the urinary system performs important functions – both for the efficient operation of the urinary system itself, and also therefore, for the body as a whole.
Functions of the kidneys: regulation of blood volume, blood pressure, the pH of the blood and the ionic composition of blood; production of red blood cells; synthesis of vitamin D; excretion of waste products and foreign substances.
Functions of the ureters: transportation of urine from the renal pelvis of the kidney to the bladder; prevention of the urine back-flow when pressure in the bladder is high during urination.
Functions of the bladder: storing urine prior to its elimination from the body; expelling urine into the urethra by a process called micturation (also known as urination)
Functions of the urethra: serving as the passageway through which urine is discharged from the body and in males the urethra also serves as the duct through which semen is ejaculated.
Post-Text Assignments I. Arrange the following words in pairs of synonyms.
II. Choose the proper continuation on the right.
is a supporting layer of fibrous connective tissue.
is a temporary storage reservoir for urine.
surrounds the beginning of the urethra.
is a large cavity that collects the urine as it is produced.
Each kidney contains over a million functional units, called ______, which has two parts: a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule.
consists of the inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle.
consists of a series of renal pyramids.
is transitional epithelium that is continuous with the lining of the renal pelvis and the urinary bladder.
The cortex and medulla make up the ________, or functional tissue, of the kidney.
Internal urethral sphincter
is the outer, reddish region, next to the capsule.
III. Find the antonyms to the following words in the text.
IV. Complete the following sentences choosing suitable words from the box.
micturation, pelvis, sinus, urethra, wastes,
epithelium, capsule, layer, kidneys, depressions
The urinary system consists of the ________, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
The ________ is a tubular structure that carries the urine from the urinary bladder to the outside.
The kidneys are the organs that filter the blood, remove the __________, and excrete the wastes in the urine.
The kidneys, protected by the lower ribs, lie in shallow ________ against the posterior abdominal wall and behind the parietal peritoneum.
A tough, fibrous, connective tissue renal _________ closely envelopes each kidney and provides support for the soft tissue that is inside.
The hilum leads to a large cavity, called the renal ________, within the kidney.
The central region of the kidney contains the renal ___________, which is located in the renal sinus, and is continuous with the ureter.
The wall of the ureter consists of three _________ .
The inner lining of the urinary bladder is a mucous membrane of transitional ___________ that is continuous with that in the ureters.
The bladder also expels urine into the urethra by a process called ___________ (also known as urination).
V. Complete the sentences by filling the gaps with the correct words or expressions.
Contraction of this muscle _______ urine from the bladder.
The paired kidneys are located between the twelfth thoracic and third lumbar ________, one on each side of the vertebral column.
In the adult, each _______ is approximately 3 cm thick, 6 cm wide, and 12 cm long.
The renal _________ surrounds a darker reddish-brown region called the renal medulla.
Portions of the renal cortex extend into the spaces between adjacent __________ to form renal columns.
Each __________ is a small tube, about 25 cm long, that carries urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder.
The main function of the ________ coat is peristalsis: to propel the urine.
The size and shape of the urinary _______ varies with the amount of urine it contains.
The mucosal ________ of the urethra is transitional epithelium.
The purpose of the urinary bladder is to store urine prior to _________ of the urine from the body.
VI. Word hunt.
(a) Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and phrases and translate the sentences containing them.
судинний орган; робота нирок; ниркова артерія; ниркова миска; сечовід; фіброзна капсула; ниркова пазуха; вершина ниркової піраміди; регуляція балансу; фільтрація крові; у рідкісних випадках; переливання крові; виділяти гормони; підтримувати баланс хімічних речовин; бути розташованим безпосередньо під; нормальне розміщення нирки; парні органи; кількість сечі
(b) Use these words and phrases in the sentences of your own. VII. True or false statements. Put “T” next to the true statements and “F” next to the false ones. Correct the false statements. ____The kidneys are dark-red, pea-shaped organs.
____There is a cavity attached to the indented side of the kidney, called the renal papilla.
____The kidney is divided into four main areas.
____There are 8 cone-shaped sections known as renal pyramids.
____The left kidney is slightly lower than the right.
____18 litres of blood pass through the kidneys every day.
____The body has four organ systems which are responsible for excretion.
____The kidneys are the secondary organs of the urinary system.
____A kidney weighs approximately 15 grams.
____The kidneys remove wastes and excess of water.
VIII. Substitute the words and phrases in bold type by close in their meaning. Each kidney is encircled in a clear membrane named the renal capsule.
The kidney is divided into two major sections.
The kidneys are in charge of filtering the blood taking away waste products.
The _____ are paired organs, which have the production of _____ as their primary function. Kidneys are seen in many types of animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. They are part of the _____ system, but have several secondary functions concerned with homeostatic functions. These include the regulation of electrolytes, _____, and blood pressure. In producing urine, the kidneys _____ wastes such as urea and _____; the kidneys also are responsible for the _____ of glucose and amino acids. Finally, the kidneys are important in the production of hormones including vitamin D, _____ and erythropoietin.
Located behind the abdominal cavity in the _____, the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries, and drain into the paired _____ veins. Each kidney excretes urine into a _____ itself, a paired structure that empties into the urinary _____.
X. Answer the following questions.
How many kidneys do people have?
What is the shape of the human kidney?
Where are the kidneys located?
What are the main functions of the kidneys?
What is the anatomy of the kidneys?
What is the structure of the human ureters?
Is the urinary bladder a temporary storage reservoir for urine?
What is the final passageway for the flow of urine?
What are the main functions of the urinary bladder?
What are the main functions of the ureters?
XI. Translate the following sentences into English. Маса нирки складає приблизно 120-200 г.
Ниркова артерія, ниркова вена, лімфатичні судини та нерви проходять крізь нирки.
Сечові канальці утворюють більшу частину нирки.
Окрім виділення, нирки відіграють важливу роль залоз внутрішньої секреції.
Сечовий міхур – тимчасовий резервуар для зберігання сечі.
Скорочення м’язів виштовхує сечу з сечового міхура.
Сечівник – це канал, через який сеча виходить з організму.
(I do/he does)
possible future events and their results
e.g. If the weather is fine, we will go for a walk
(I –were/I did)
Future Indefinite in the Past
improbable future event or situation
e.g. If I won a lottery, I would buy an island
I. Put the verb in brackets in the correct form (Conditional sentences Type I). If I see him, I (to give) him your report on the anatomy of the kidneys.
If he (to be) late for the anatomy lecture, he won’t know anything about the functions of the kidneys.
I’ll be very angry if he (tolose) my book “Renal System”.
If you (to come) late, the urologist (not to let) you in.
If you put on the kettle, I (make) the tea.
If I (to lend) you my lab coat, when you (to return) it to me?
Tell him to ring me up after the pediatrics if you (to see) him.
I (to feel) really happy when I (to become) a successful doctor.
If the muscle (not to contract), the urine (not to be expelled) from the bladder?
When the bladder (to be) empty, the mucosa (to have) numerous folds called rugae.
II. “If I were …”. Finish the dreams of the medical students matching the line in the first column with the line the second column. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Conditional sentences Type II.
If I were a gynaecologist,
I would correct deformities of the skeletal system.
If I were a paediatrician,
I would help deliver babies.
If I were an anaesthesiologist,
I would examine the eyes and prescribe and supply spectacles and contact lenses.
If I were a gastroenterologist,
I would deal with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and emotional disorders.
If I were a dentist,
I would diagnose and treat the diseases of the ear, nose, and throat.
If I were an otolaryngologist,
I would specialize in the care of babies and children.
If I were a psychiatrist,
I would practice the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, injuries, and malformations of the teeth, jaws, and mouth.
If I were an optician,
I would specialize in diseases of the stomach, intestine and associated organs.