a chronic inflammatory skin disorder seen in individuals with a hereditary predisposition to a lowered cutaneous threshold to pruritus, often accompanied by allergic rhinitis, hay fever, and asthma, and particularly characterized by extreme itching, leading to scratching and rubbing that in turn results in the typical lesions of eczema
acute or chronic dermatitis caused by materials or substances coming in contact with the skin, which may involve either allergic or nonallergic mechanisms
a type of irritant dermatitis localized to the area in contact with the diaper in infants, often sparing the skin of the genitocrural folds, occurring as a reaction to prolonged contact with urine faeces, retained soaps and topical preparations, friction and maceration, and commonly associated with secondary bacterial and yeast infections
a chronic, relapsing multisystem disease in which the primary clinical manifestations are cutaneous, presenting as an extremely pruritic eruption consisting of various combinations of grouped, erythematous, papular, vesicular, eczematous lesions which frequently heal with hyperpigmentation and sometimes scarring. It usually occurs in association with an asymptomatic gluten-sensitive enteropathy
a papular eruption of unknown aetiology that progresses to residual papular erythema and scaling usually confined to the area about the mouth, and almost exclusively occurring in young women
an exaggerated sunburn-like reaction, sometimes with vesiculation, resulting in hyperpigmentation and desquamation, which occurs on the light-exposed areas of the skin as the cutaneous manifestation of phototoxicity
a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin of unknown aetiology, characterized by moderate erythema, dry, moist, or greasy scaling, and yellow crusted patches on various areas, including the mid-parts of the face, ears, supraorbital regions, umbilicus, genitalia, and especially the scalp, where it is manifested by small patches of scales that progress to involve the entire scalp, with exfoliation of an excessive amount of dry scales (dandruff)
often chronic, usually eczematous dermatitis, which initially involves the inner aspect of the lower leg just above the internal malleolus and which later may involve the entire lower leg or portions thereof, characterized by oedema, pigmentation, and commonly ulceration; it is due to venous insufficiency
III. Build adjectives from the following words using suffixes–ous, -ar, -ent, -ory, -ive, -ic, -y, -al, -ant.
IV. Match the words with the root “derma” with their definitions.
a condition of the skin in which it becomes red, swollen, and sore, sometimes with small blisters, resulting from direct irritation of the skin by an external agent or an allergic reaction to it
a doctor who specializes in the study of skin and the treatment of skin diseases
the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders
a fungal infection of the skin, especially by a dermatophyte
any surgical operation on the skin, esp skin grafting
a disease of the skin, especially one that does not cause inflammation
the study of skin markings or patterns on fingers, hands, and feet, and its application, especially in criminology
a surgical instrument for cutting thin slices of skin, esp. for grafting
Dermatitis is inflammation of the skin. A number of health conditions, allergies, genetic factors and irritants can be responsible for causing dermatitis. There are several types of dermatitis which are distinguished based on the factor that triggers the skin reaction. Cleaning products like: soaps, detergents, or bleach may cause contact dermatitis. This specific type of dermatitis can also be caused by the exposure to allergens such as: rubber, metal (nickel), jewelry, cosmetics, fragrances and perfume, weeds (such as poison ivy) or a common ingredient found in topical antibiotic creams: neomycin. Generally, people who become sensitive to an allergen will be allergic to it for the rest of their lives.
Atopic dermatitis is very common worldwide and increasing in prevalence. Individuals who live in urban areas with low humidity are more prone to develop this type of dermatitis. The cause of atopic dermatitis is not known, but the disease seems to result from a combination of genetic (hereditary) and environmental factors. Usually, an irritable skin, a poor immune system and a genetic factor are included among the causes of this condition. Although stress does not cause this type of dermatitis, it has been proven to worsen it.
Dry skin, chronic irritation, eczema and psoriasis are possible causes of neurodermatitis. Studies have shown that long term use of topical steroid cream, often used to treat atopic dermatitis, can make the condition much worse. Total cessation of the use of topical steroid cream can lead to cure, although there is a period of severe “rebound” between the cessation of the use of topical steroid cream and the cure.
Dermatitis herpetiformis appears as a result of a gastrointestinal condition, known as celiac disease. Celiac disease often results after the ingestion of aliments that contain gluten.
Seborrheic dermatitis is usually caused by physical stress, neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease or by travelling. Seborrheic dermatitis is more common in infants and in individuals between 30 and 70 years old. It appears to affect primarily men and it occurs in 85% of people suffering from AIDS.
Varicose veins and chronic conditions or infections that affect the blood flow in the legs account for potential causes of stasis dermatitis.
Makeup, moisturizers, topical corticosteroids and dental products that contain fluoride may cause perioral dermatitis. Perioral dermatitis is somewhat similar to rosacea; it appears more often in women between 20 and 60 years old.
Dermatitis symptoms vary with all different forms of the condition. They range from skin rashes to bumpy rashes or blisters. Although every type of dermatitis has different symptoms, there are certain signs that are common for all of them, including redness of the skin, swelling, itching, skin lesions and sometimes oozing and scarring. The symptoms of contact dermatitis usually appear at the site where the allergen got into contact with the skin. Although the symptoms of atopic dermatitis vary from person to person, the most common symptoms are dry, itchy, red skin. Typical affected skin areas include the folds of the arms, the back of the knees, wrists, face and hands. Itching is the primary symptoms of this condition. Dermatitis herpetiformis symptoms include itching, stinging and a burning sensation. Papules and vesicles are commonly present. The small red bumps experienced in this type of dermatitis are usually about 1 cm in size, red in colour and may be found symmetrically grouped or distributed on the upper or lower back, buttocks, elbows, knees, neck, shoulders, and scalp. Less frequently, the rash may appear inside the mouth or near the hairline. The symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis tend to appear gradually, from dry or greasy scaling of the scalp (dandruff) to hair loss. In severe causes, pimples may appear along the hairline, behind the ears, on the eyebrows, on the bridge of the nose, around the nose, on the chest, and on the upper back. In newborns, the condition causes a thick and yellowish scalp rash, often accompanied by a diaper rash. Perioral dermatitis refers to a red bumpy rash around the mouth.
Creams that contain corticosteroids, wet compresses and avoiding the allergens and irritants are part of most treatment plans. For some types of dermatitis, nonsteroidal medications may help relieve signs and symptoms. And for all types of dermatitis, occasional use of over-the-counter antihistamines can reduce itching.
I. Match the terms in both columns to form collocations. Translate them into Ukrainian.
II. In the row of four words three of them have a similar meaning and one has a completely different meaning. Find the word that has a different meaning.
III. Choose the adjectives from the box to complete the sentences.
thick, sensitive, fair, itchy, dry, smooth, pale, dark
His white teeth and brown oval eyes stood out in stark contrast against his _________ tanned skin.
Very ________ and sensitive skin can not use alcohol-based cleansers and may even find water-cleansing too much.
Should I stay out of the sun? _______ skin has little natural protection and is particularly susceptible to damage.
It's designed to protect and soothe even the most ____________ male skin.
She has such a ____________ skin, as if she was ill.
A prerequisite of being a member of our party is a _____ skin and a sense of humour.
Annie felt her hand enclosed in a warm cocoon of talcum powder and _________ baby skin.
My skin is so __________ that I scratch myself hard.
IV. Match the terms with their definitions.
a mark left on the skin or within body tissue where a wound, burn, or sore has not healed quite completely and fibrous connective tissue has developed
small white pieces of dead skin in someone’s hair, or fallen from someone’s hair
slow flow or leakage, as through pores or very small holes
feeling hot, painful, red or sore, typically as a result of illness or injury
a small bubble on the skin filled with serum and caused by friction, burning, or other damage
an uncomfortable sensation on the skin that causes a desire to scratch
an area of redness and spots on a person’s skin, appearing especially as a result of illness
abnormal enlargement of a part of the body, typically as a result of an accumulation of fluid
a region in an organ or tissue which has suffered damage through injury or disease, such as a wound, ulcer, abscess, or tumour
V. Read and translate some interesting facts about the skin. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate prepositions.
So what is skin? Skin is a miracle garment. It’s soft, pliable, strong, waterproof, and self-repairing.
What would you be like without skin? The answer is quite simple, a big squishy mess! Your skin is like a very large container. It’s the largest organ ____ your body, and without it, all your delicate insides would spill right out.
Skin doesn’t just cover you! Your skin doesn’t just cover you. It does a whole lot more. It functions as protective wrapping. Along with a layer _____ fat underneath, it insulates you _______ all kinds of bumps, bangs and wear and tear. It keeps germs and water out (unless you have a break in your skin) and keeps your body’s fluids and salts in. Skin manufactures and oozes out all sorts _______ wonderful liquids. Waxes and oils act as your body’s natural waterproofer and a protector ________ germs. They make your skin softer; but they can also give you pimples. Your skin also contains glands which manufacture sweat. With sweat, not only does your body get cooled by its evaporation, but it has a convenient way to get rid ______ chemicals it doesn’t need.
How does it do all this? Skin is alive. It’s made _____ many thin sheets of layers of flat, stacked cells _____ which you’ll find nerves, blood vessels, hair follicles, glands, and sensory receptors. Older cells are constantly being pushed ______ the surface by new cells which grow from below. When the old ones reach the top, they become wider and flatter as they get rubbed and worn by all your activity. And, sooner or later, they end up popping off like tiles blown from a roof in a strong wind. _____ fact, every minute 30,000-40,000 dead skin cells fall from your body! In approximately a month’s time, your body has made a whole new layer of skin cells!
Ever wonder what makes different skin colours? A pigment called melanin. More melanin ___ your skin cells makes your skin darker, less makes it lighter. Sitting ____ the sun can also cause more melanin to be manufactured in your skin cells. The result? A suntan.