Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С

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Unit 23

Ear Diseases

Conditionals. Wishes

Pre-Text Assignments

I. Learn the following words.

aggravate, v


погіршувати, загострювати

aural, adj


вушний, слуховий

deafness, n

['defnqs], ['defnIs]


demarcation, n


розмежування, розділення

dizziness, n



fluctuation, n


коливання, нестійкість

footplate, n


основа стремінця

Ménière’s disease

['mqn'jE:rz dI'zJz]

хвороба Меньєра, ендолімфатична водянка

muffle, v



otitis media

[q(V)'taItIs 'mJdIq]

запалення середнього вуха

otorrhoea, n


оторея (виділення гною з барабанної порожнини)

outbreak, n


спалах, початок

presbyacusis, n


пресбіакузис, стареча туговухість

purulence, n


гній, нагноєння

rigour, n


озноб, тремтіння

shunt, n



stapedectomy, n



stapedotomy, n



suppurative, adj



tinnitus, n

['tInItqs], [tI'naItqs]

дзвін (шум) у вухах

vertigo, n

pl vertigos/vertigoes



II. Remember word roots and combining forms pertaining to the ear.


word analysis

brief explanation


ot(o) = ear

itis = inflammation

inflammation of the ear


staped = stapes

-ectomy = excision

excision of the stapes


staped = stapes

-tomy = cutting process (incision)

incision into the stapes


ot(o) = ear

-rrhoea = discharge, flow

discharge from the ear


presby = old age

acous = hearing or sound

hearing loss with aging


ot(o) = ear

sclerosis = hardening

overgrowth of bone in the inner ear


audi/o = hearing

-meter = measure

an instrument used to visually examine the ear


cerumin = cerumen

-osis = abnormal condition

abnormal (excessive) secretion of cerumen


salping/o = auditory (Eustachian) tube

pharyngeal = pertaining to the pharynx

pertaining to the Eustachian tube and throat


tympan/o = eardrum

-tomy = incision

incision into tympanic membrane

III. Match the following verbs with their explanations.

to aggravate

cause (a wound, injury, or person) to become sound or healthy again

to muffle

gather together or acquire an increasing number or quantity, build up

to alter

(of an orifice or diseased tissue) emit (pus or other liquid)

to heal

cause (someone or something) to change course or turn from one direction to another

to affect

make (a problem, injury, or offence) worse or more serious

to accumulate

change in character or composition, typically in a comparatively small but significant way

to discharge

make (a sound) quieter or less distinct

to divert

to act upon or influence, esp in an adverse way

IV. Match the following English words and word combinations with the Ukrainian ones.

sclerotic stapes footplate

місцеве лікування

hearing aid

приглушений шум

conductive hearing loss

поршневий протез

topical therapy

відчуття повноти

sensorineural hearing loss

двостороння втрата слуху

sensation of fullness

безперервність рухливості слухових кісточок

muffled noise

слуховий апарат

piston-like prosthesis

кондуктивна туговухість

bilateral hearing loss

нейросенсорна втрата слуху

continuity of ossicular movement

склеротична основа стремінця

Diseases of the Ear

Hearing loss (deafness) can be classified into three main types: conductive, sensory-neural, and central hearing loss.

Conductive hearing loss may be caused by simple situations such as accumulation of wax in the ear. However, it may also be due to an inflammation and infection of the middle ear (otitis media), or to otosclerosis.

Otitis media is most commonly caused by infection with viral, bacterial, or fungal pathogens. Acute otitis media (AOM) is most often purely viral and self-limited, as it usually accompanies viral upper respiratory infection. 1st phase – exudative inflammation lasting 1–2 days, fever, rigours, meningism (occasionally in children), severe pain (worse at night), muffled noise in the ear, deafness, sensitive mastoid process, ringing in ears (tinnitus). 2nd phase – resistance and demarcation lasting 3–8 days. Pus and middle ear exudate discharge spontaneously and afterwards pain and fever begin to decrease. This phase can be shortened with topical therapy. 3rd phase – healing phase lasting 2–4 weeks. Aural discharge dries up and hearing becomes normal.

Otitis media with effusion (OME), also called serous or secretory otitis media (SOM), is simply a collection of fluid that occurs within the middle ear space as a result of the negative pressure produced by altered Eustachian tube function. This can occur purely from a viral upper respiratory infection, with no pain or bacterial infection, or it can precede and/or follow acute bacterial otitis media. Fluid in the middle ear sometimes causes conductive hearing impairment, but only when it interferes with the normal vibration of the eardrum by sound waves. Over weeks and months, middle ear fluid can become very thick and glue-like.

Chronic suppurative otitis media involves a perforation (hole) in the tympanic membrane and active bacterial infection within the middle ear space for several weeks or more. There may be enough pus that drains to the outside of the ear (otorrhoea), or the purulence may be minimal enough to only be seen on examination using a binocular microscope. This disease is much more common in persons with poor Eustachian tube function.

Otosclerosis is an abnormal growth of bone near the middle ear. The primary form of hearing loss in otosclerosis is conductive hearing loss, whereby, sounds reach the ear drum but are incompletely transferred via the ossicular chain in the middle ear, and thus partly fail to reach the inner ear (cochlea). This usually will begin in one ear but will eventually affect both ears with a variable course. Treatment of otosclerosis relies on two primary options: hearing aids and a surgery called a stapedectomy. Hearing aids are usually very effective early in the course of the disease, but eventually a stapedectomy (or more frequently a variant called the stapedotomy) may be required for definitive treatment. A stapedectomy consists of removing a portion of the sclerotic stapes footplate and replacing it with an implant that is secured to the incus. This procedure restores continuity of ossicular movement and allows transmission of sound waves from the eardrum to the inner ear. A modern variant of this surgery called a stapedotomy, is performed by drilling a small hole in the stapes footplate with a micro-drill or a laser, and the insertion of a piston-like prosthesis.

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