Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С


Contents Unit 1



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Contents


Unit 1. Respiratory System. Verb Tenses (Revision).

3

Unit 2. Diseases of the Respiratory System. Non-Finite Verbal Forms. Infinitive.

21

Unit 3. Cardiovascular System. Participle.

40

Unit 4. Ischaemic Heart Disease. Use of the Present and Past Participle.

57

Unit 5. Atherosclerosis. The Objective Participial Construction. The Subjective Participial Construction.

75

Unit 6. Digestive System. The Gerund.

88

Unit 7. Gastritis. Verbal Noun and Gerund.

99

Unit 8. Stomach Cancer. To-Infinitive or Gerund after a Verb.

110

Unit 9. The Liver. Verbs Used with both Gerund and the Infinitive with a Change in Meaning.

129

Unit 10. Hepatitis. The Subjective Participial Construction. The Objective Participial Construction. The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction.

142

Unit 11. Cirrhosis. Linking words.

153

Unit 12. Immune System. Compound Sentences.

166

Unit 13. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The Complex Sentence.

180

Unit 14. Allergy. Complex Sentences. Subject Clauses.

192

Unit 15. Endocrine System. Complex Sentences. Subject and Predicative Clauses.

205

Unit 16. Thyroid Gland. Object Clauses.

220

Unit 17. Diabetes. Attributive Clauses.

232

Unit 18. Nervous System. Adverbial Clauses.

247

Unit 19. The Brain. Adverbial Clauses.

262

Unit 20. Stroke. Adverbial Clauses of Condition.

276

Unit 21. Sense Organs. Adverbial Clauses of Time, Place and Cause.

289

Unit 22. Eye Diseases. Conditional Sentences.

307

Unit 23. Ear Diseases. Conditionals. Wishes.

319

Unit 24. Dermatitis. Conditionals. Would rather/had better.

331

Unit 25. Urinary System. Conditionals.

346

Unit 26. Renal Diseases. Conditionals.

359

Unit 27. Reproductive System. Tense Revision.

371

Unit 28. Reproductive System Diseases. Passive Voice. (Revision)

383

Unit 29. Pregnancy. Non-Finite Forms of the Verb. (Revision)

395

English-Ukrainian Glossary.

397

Appendix.

416

References.

445


Unit 1

Respiratory System

Verb Tenses (Revision)

Pre-Text Assignments

  1. Memorize the words and expressions listed below.

alveolus, n

pl alveoli

[xl'vJqlqs]

pl [xl'vJqlaI]

альвеола

breathe, v

[brJD]

дихати

bronchiole, n

['brPNkJ"qVl]

бронхіола

bronchus, n

pl bronchi

['brPNkqs]

pl ['brPNkaI]

бронх

capacity, n

[kq'pxsqtI]

здатність; об’єм; місткість; ємність

cilium, n

pl cilia

['sIlIqm]

pl ['sIlIq]

війка респіраторного епітелію

deflate, v

[dI'fleIt]

спадати (про легені)

diaphragm, n

['daIqfrxm]

діафрагма

eliminate, v

[I'lImIneIt]

виділяти, знищувати, ліквідовувати

exhale, v

[eks'heIl]

видихати

expiration, n

["ekspaIq'reISn], ["ekspI'reISn]

["ekspq'reISn]

видих, видихання

inflate, v

[In'fleIt]

наповнюватися повітрям, роздуватися

inhale, v

[In'heIl]

вдихати

inspiration, n

["Inspq'reISn]

вдих

nare, n = nostril

[nFq] ['nOstr(q)l]

ніздря

patrol, v

[pq'trqVl]

охороняти

pleura, n

pl pleurae

['plVqrq]

pl ['plVqrJ]

плевра

release into, v

[rI'lJs]

вивільняти; виділяти; випускати повітря

respiratory, adj

['respqrqtrI]

[rIs'paIqrqtrI] ['respqrqtLri]

[rqs'pirqtri]

дихальний

ring, n

[rIN]

кільце

stiff, adj

[stIf]

нееластичний, негнучкий, жорсткий

tidal volume

['taIdl'vPljHm]

дихальний об’єм

tonsil, n

['tPnsl]

мигдалик

trachea, n

pl tracheae/tracheas

[trq'kJq]

pl [trq'kJJ]

трахея



  1. Read the facts about the respiratory system and translate them into Ukrainian.


  1. The lungs contain almost 1.500 miles (2.414 km) of airways and over 300 million alveoli.

  2. Every minute the human breathes in 13 pints (6.15 litres) of air.

  3. We exhale about half a litre of water vapour in a whole day.

  4. Breathing is initiated by the diaphragm which is a stretchable muscle under the lungs. The volume of the chest cavity rises and the air pressure drops when the diaphragm contracts. That is what enables the high pressure air outside to enter the lungs and makes them expand like balloons. When the diaphragm expands, lungs are emptied of air and we exhale it outside.

  5. People with asthma have difficulty in breathing because the airways in their lungs become narrow and constricted, due to which, enough oxygen is not supplied through the lungs.

  6. Plants are our partners in breathing. We breathe in air, use the oxygen in it, and release carbon dioxide. Plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen.

  7. People tend to get more colds in winter because we’re indoors more often and in close proximity to other people. When people sneeze, cough and even breathe germs go flying!

  8. When we sneeze, particles fly out of the nose at 100 mph (161 km/h). A sneeze is the body’s way of getting rid of something that is irritating the nose.




  1. Match the respiratory system terms with their definitions.

nose

the section of the alimentary canal that extends from the mouth and nasal cavities to the larynx, where it becomes continuous with the oesophagus

paranasal sinuses

the two main branches of the trachea leading directly to the lungs

pharynx

a protuberance in vertebrates that contains the nostrils, or nares, which admit and expel air for respiration. It also contains the tiny hairs (cilia) which catch airborne particles and prevent them from reaching the lungs. There is the olfactory mucosa and the sinuses within and behind it

larynx

a muscular membranous partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities and functioning in respiration (also called a midriff)

trachea

a soft, spongy organ in the thoracic cavity composed of alveoli, capillaries, and the bronchial tree

bronchi

air-filled spaces, communicating with the nasal cavity, within the bones of the skull and face. They are joined to the nasal cavity via small orifices called ostia

alveolus

a thin serous membrane that envelops each lung and makes a lining for the chest cavity

diaphragm

the part of the upper respiratory tract between the pharynx and trachea. It is composed of cartilage pieces that form a box-like structure, a voice box, which contains the vocal cords. Vibration of the vocal cords produces sound for speech

pleura

a tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac in the lung where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place (also called an air sac)

lung

a thin-walled, cartilaginous tube descending from the larynx to the bronchi and carrying air to the lungs (also called a windpipe)
  1. Match the English word-combinations with the Ukrainian equivalents and use them in the sentences of your own.


    gas exchange

    виділяти надлишок води

    to inhale oxygen

    життєвонеобхідний для спілкування

    to exhale carbon dioxide

    контактувати з мікробами

    acid-base balance

    система альвеол

    to maintain body temperature

    прогрітий, зволожений і очищений

    to eliminate excess water

    газовий обмін

    vital for communication purposes

    кислотно-лужний баланс

    warmed, moistened and filtered out

    підтримувати температуру тіла

    to inflate and deflate without losing shape

    очищувати повітроносні шляхи від рідин та чужорідних часточок

    exposed to microbes

    видихати вуглекислий газ

    to sweep fluids and foreign particles out of the airway

    роздуватися та спадати, не втрачаючи при цьому форми

    network of alveoli

    вдихати кисень

  1. Remember roots and suffixes pertaining to respiration.

Root

Meaning

Example

Definition

-pnea

breathing

eupnoea

easy, normal breathing

-oxia

level of oxygen

hypoxia

decreased oxygen in the tissues

-capnia

level of carbon dioxide

hypercapnia

excess carbon dioxide in the tissues

-phonia

voice

dysphonia

difficulty in speaking

rhin/o

nose

rhinorrhoea

discharge from the nose

pneum/o, pneumon/o, pneumat/o

respiration, lung, air, gas

pneumonectomy

excision of lung tissue

pulm/o, pulmon/o

lungs

pulmonary

pertaining to the lungs

spir/o

breathing

spirometer

instrument for measuring breathing

pleur/o

pleura

pleuralgia

pain in the pleura

bronchiol

bronchiole

bronchiolitis

inflammation of the bronchioles

pharyng/o

pharynx

pharyngeal

pertaining to the pharynx

laryng/o

larynx

laryngoscope

endoscope for examination of the larynx

trache/o

trachea

tracheotomy

incision of the trachea

bronch/o

bronch/i

bronchus

bronchospasm

spasm of the bronchi


Define the following terms.

  1. Pneumopathy _______________________________________

  2. Pleuritis _______________________________________

  3. Aphonia _______________________________________

  4. Intrapulmonary _______________________________________

  5. Laryngitis _______________________________________

  6. Apnoea _______________________________________

  7. Pleuropulmonary _______________________________________

  8. Intrapleural _______________________________________

  9. Subpulmonary _______________________________________


Write a word for each of the following definitions.

  1. Inflammation of the nasal passages __________________ .

  2. Inflammation of the pharynx __________________ .

  3. Inflammation of the bronchus __________________ .

  4. Examination of the larynx __________________ .

  5. Examination of the trachea __________________ .

  6. Surgical creation of the opening in the trachea __________________ .

  7. Surgical removal of the larynx __________________ .

  8. Surgical incision of the pleura __________________ .

  9. A record (-gram) of breathing movements __________________ .

  10. Inflammation of the lungs __________________ .

  11. Decreased (hypo-) depth and rate of breathing __________________ .

  12. Excess oxygen in the tissues __________________ .

  13. Decreased carbon dioxide in the tissues __________________ .


Write adjectives for each of the following words.

  1. Nose _________________

  2. Larynx _________________

  3. Bronchus _________________

  4. Bronchiole _________________

  5. Nasopharynx _________________

  6. Lung _________________

  7. Epiglottis _________________

  8. Lobule _________________

  9. Mediastinum _________________

  10. Pleura _________________

  11. Tonsil _________________

  12. Trachea _________________

  13. Cartilage _________________


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