Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С

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Unit 20


Adverbial Clauses of Condition

Pre-Text Assignments

  1. Learn the following words.

aneurysm, n



aspirin, n

['xsprIn], ['xspqrIn]


atherosclerosis, n



cholesterol, n



clot, n


тромб, згусток

dexterity, n


вправність, умілість

embolism, n



haemorrhagic, adj


геморагічний; що стосується кровотечі

heparin, n



ischaemic, adj



nursing facility

['nE:sIN fq'sIlqtI]

заклад з посиленим сестринським доглядом

plasminogen, n


плазміноген, профібринолізин

rehabilitation, n



rupture, v



stroke, n



transient ischaemic attack

['trxnzIqnt I'skJmIk q'txk]

транзиторний ішемічний напад

  1. Read the following transcriptions. Write them in words and give their Ukrainian equivalents.

['PksIGqn], ['veqrIqs 'mekq"nIzqmz], ['nxrqVIN], ['hRdqnIN], [hRt], ["xTqrqVsklIq'rqVsIs], ['dxmIGd 'eqrIq], [maIld], ['sAdqnlI], ['InGqrI], ['PpqzIt 'saId], ['wJknIs], ['trAbl 'sJIN], [sI'vIq 'hed"eIk], [q'veIlqbl], ['TInIN "Dq 'blAd], [rI'kAvqrI], ['fANkSqnql q'bIlItI], ['spJC 'TerqpI], [streNT], ["daIq'bJtJz], ["haI 'blAd"preSq], [kq'lestq"rPl 'levql].

  1. Match the following terms with their definition.


the property of lacking physical or mental strength; liability to failure under pressure or stress or strain

blood clot

a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall


occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus (a loose clot or air bubble or other particle)


a type of fat that is manufactured in the liver or intestines, but is also found in some of the foods we eat (only animal foods, such as eggs, milk, cheese, liver, meat and poultry)


partial or total lack of sensation in a part of the body; a symptom of nerve damage or dysfunction


the treatment of physical disabilities by massage and electrotherapy and exercises



a semisolid mass of coagulated red and white blood cells


pain in the head caused by dilation of cerebral arteries or muscle contractions or a reaction to drugs

  1. Match the following English word combinations with the Ukrainian ones.

narrowing of the arteries

відчувати запаморочення

size of the damaged area

найпоширеніше лікування

to feel dizzy

відновити функціональні можливості

opposite side of the body

розмір ураженої ділянки

to thin the blood

високий рівень холестерину

the most common treatment

одужання після інсульту

stroke recovery

звуження артерій

to regain one’s functional abilities

наштовхнутися на труднощі

to face the challenge

протилежний бік тіла

high levels of cholesterol

тримати щось під контролем

to happen with no warning

розріджувати кров

to keep smth. under control

траплятися без попереджень

Brain Stoke

A brain stroke occurs when one of the brain parts is deprived from oxygen-rich blood due to various mechanisms. Usually a brain stroke occurs when one of the arteries is blocked either because of the narrowing of the small arteries within the brain or the hardening of the arteries that lead to the brain (what is called atherosclerosis). In some cases, a brain stroke may be a result of an embolism which travelled from the heart to the brain. Strokes can be either ischaemic (when it is caused by a blood clot) or haemorrhagic (when ruptured aneurysms bleed into to brain).

Signs and symptoms. Every stroke is different. The symptoms and effects vary according to the type of stroke, the part of the brain affected and the size of the damaged area. For some people the effects are severe, for some mild. Usually the symptoms come on suddenly but they may come on during sleep. Usually injury to one side of the brain affects the opposite side of the body.

In the case of a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) (“mini-stroke”) the symptoms disappear within 24 hours but otherwise tend to be permanent. The numbness or weakness of the face, arm and leg on one side of the body, trouble seeing, talking or understanding along with severe headaches are the first stroke signs. Patients are usually confused, may lose balance or coordination and have trouble walking and they feel dizzy. The stroke is a medical emergency so recognizing the signs as soon as they occur is very important for the patient’s life.

Treatment. Medication is available for treating brain stroke. Heparin or aspirin are recommended for patients who have suffered from a stroke due to their ability of thinning the blood. However, the tissue plasminogen activator (or TPA) is the most common treatment for brain stroke. It actually consists in injecting TPA into a vein of the arm as soon as possible since the earlier it is administered, the better the results are.

Rehabilitation. The most important and difficult part of the treatment is the stroke recovery. As soon as the patient is no longer acutely ill he or she must follow rehabilitation therapy in order to regain his or her functional abilities. Therapy should be followed either at a rehabilitation specialized hospital or at a nursing facility. During recovery, the patient will follow speech therapy to regain his or her ability to talk and swallow, occupational therapy in order to regain dexterity in the arms, and physical therapy to improve his or her strength and walking. Rehabilitation process includes family education intended to orient the family considering the challenges they will face.

Prevention. Stroke prevention implies avoiding the main risk factors. However, a part of these factors may be controlled by the individual but some others cannot such as age, gender, family history or history of stroke or TIAs. Among the risk factors that the patients can control are the blood pressure, the cholesterol levels, diabetes, obesity or being overweight, smoking or lack of physical activity. Individuals who are overweight or have diabetes have to at least try keeping under control the high blood pressure or high blood cholesterol and they certainly have to quit smoking or abusing alcohol (if that is the case). Stress is also a risk factor for stroke and trying to avoid it is another step in stroke prevention.

Preventing stroke is the best a patient could do. Persons at risk should regularly check their blood pressure and cholesterol levels and try keeping them under control. A stroke usually happens with no warning so it is very important that individuals that may suffer from a stroke follow their doctor’s instructions.

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