Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С



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Post-Text Assignments

  1. Choose the antonyms on the right to the words in italics.

afferent

intermittent

continuous

safety

major

to decrease

inside

efferent

peripheral

connected

separate

central

to stimulate

simple

conscious

internal

complex

outside

to increase

voluntary

danger

to inhibit

involuntary

minor

external

unconscious




  1. Substitute the words in bold type by a word or a combination of words from the text.

  1. Through its receptors, the nervous system maintains communication with our outside and inside environment.

  2. Together with the endocrine system, the nervous system is responsible for regulating and maintaining ability of a body to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.

  3. The different activities of the nervous system can be categorized as three universal, overlapping functions: sensory, combining, and motor.

  4. Millions of sensory receptors adjust such things as temperature, light, and sound from the outside surroundings.

  5. Sensory input is transformed into electrical signals called nerve impulses that are conducted to the brain.

  6. The brain and spinal cord are the organs of the CNS.

  7. The PNS is divided into a sensory division and a motor division.

  8. The visceral efferent nervous system supplies motor signals to heart muscle, to muscle found in walls of internal organs, and to thin, membranous tissue that lines glands.

  9. The parasympathetic nervous system activates relaxing functions, such as encouraging the secretion of saliva or digestive ferments into the belly and part of the digestive tract consisting of the duodenum, ileum, and jejunum.




  1. Fill in the gaps with suitable words or word combinations from the box.




protective structures, cranial nerves, sympathetic nerves, spinal, neuron,

signals, complex, balance, information, ability




  1. The nervous system is the most _________ of all human body systems.

  2. The nervous system provides us the ______ to perceive, understand and react to environmental events.

  3. The nervous system is responsible for rapid conduction of _______ throughout the body.

  4. A __________ is an individual nerve cell, a microscopic structure. Impulses are passed along the parts of a nerve cell in a definite manner and direction.

  5. The CNS, housed entirely within the _______ of the skull and vertebral column, consists of the brain and spinal cord.

  6. Information flows to the central nervous system from the peripheral nervous system, which senses _________ from the environment outside the body and from the internal environment (autonomic nervous system)

  7. The peripheral system has 12 pairs of ________: olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducent, facial, vestibulo-cochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, and hypoglossal.

  8. Each ________ nerve is attached to the spinal cord by a sensory and a motor root.

  9. The ________ increase heart rate and forcefulness, dilate airways so more oxygen can enter, increase blood pressure, and inhibit intestinal contractions so that digestion is slower.

  10. The parasympathetic nerves normally act as __________ for the sympathetic nerves.




  1. Complete the sentences by choosing appropriate prepositions from those in brackets. Entitle the complete text and translate it into Ukrainian.

The nervous system is one _____ (from / of) the most complex of all human body systems. More than 10 billion nerve cells are operating constantly all ____ (over / around) the body to coordinate the activities we do consciously and unconsciously, as well as those that occur voluntarily and involuntarily. We speak, we move muscles, we hear, we taste, we think, our glands secrete hormones, we respond ____ (for / to) danger, pain, temperature, touch, we have memory, associations, discriminations – all ____ (of / within) these composing a small number of the many activities controlled ____ (by / via) our nervous system.

Nerve cells collected ____ (to / into) bundles called nerves carry electrical messages all ____ (through / over) the body. External stimuli, as well as internal chemicals such as acetylcholine, activate the cell membranes ____ (of / for) nerve cells so as to release stored electrical energy ____ (within / outside) the cells. This energy when released and passed ____ (through / along) the length of the nerve cell is called nervous impulse. External receptors, like sense organs, as well as internal receptors ____ (within / in) muscles and blood vessels receive and transmit impulses ___ (into / to) the complex network of nerve cells ___ (at / in) the brain and spinal cord. Within this central part ____ (in / of) the nervous system impulses are recognized, interpreted, and finally relayed (to / into) other nerve cells which extend out ____ (onto / to) all parts of the body, such as muscles, glands, and internal organs.






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