Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С



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corticosteroid

an abnormal desire to consume excessive amounts of food




  1. Read and discuss the long-term complications of diabetes.

Tissue or Organ Affected


What happens


Complication

Blood vessels

Atherosclerotic plaque builds up and blocks arteries in the heart, brain, legs, and penis. The walls of small blood vessels are damaged so that the vessels do not transfer oxygen normally and may leak.

Poor circulation causes wounds to heal poorly and can lead to heart disease, stroke, gangrene of the feet and hands, impotence and infections.

Eyes

The small blood vessels of the retina become damaged.

Decreased vision and, ultimately, blindness.

Kidneys

Blood vessels in kidneys thicken; protein leaks into the urine; the blood isn’t filtered normally.

Poor kidney function; kidney failure.

Nerves

Nerves are damaged because glucose isn’t metabolized normally and because the blood supply is inadequate.

Sudden or gradual weakness of a leg; reduced sensations, tingling, pain in the hands and feet; chronic damage to nerves.

Autonomic nervous system

The nerves that control blood pressure and digestive processes become damaged.

Swings in blood pressure; swallowing difficulties, altered gastrointestinal function.

Skin

Poor blood flow to the skin and loss of feeling result in repeated injury.

Sores, deep infections (diabetic ulcers); poor healing.


Blood

White blood cell function is impaired.

Increased susceptibility to infection.

Connective tissue

Glucose isn’t metabolized normally, causing tissues to thicken or contract.

Carpal tunnel syndrome; Dupuytren’s contracture.




  1. Complete the sentences by choosing appropriate prepositions from those in the brackets. Translate the complete text into Ukrainian.



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