Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С


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doctor, resistance, diet, three, insulin, skin, pancreas, mouth, maximum activity, type I diabetes, blood sugar levels, thin needles, long-acting, drug, home


Insulin Replacement Therapy. In type I diabetes, the _____ can’t produce insulin, so insulin must be replaced. Replacement can be accomplished only by injection; because insulin is destroyed in the stomach, it can’t be taken by ______ . It is injected under the ________ into the fat layer, usually in the arm, thigh or abdominal wall. Small syringes with very _________ make the injections nearly painless.

Insulin is available in ______ basic forms: rapid-acting – begins to lower _______ within 20 minutes, reaches maximum activity in 2 to 4 hours, and lasts for 6 to 8 hours; intermediate-acting – starts to work in 1 to 3 hours, reaches its ______ in 6 to 10 hours, and works for 18 to 26 hours; _______ – has very little effect for about 6 hours but provides coverage for 28 to 36 hours.

Some people develop _________ to insulin, so they must take large doses.

Oral Hypoglycaemic Drugs such as glipizide, glyburide, tolbutamide, and

chlorpropamide can often lower blood sugar levels adequately in people with type II diabetes but aren’t effective in ________ . They lower the blood sugar levels by stimulating the pancreas to release _______ and by increasing its effectiveness. Another ________ , metformin, doesn’t affect the release of insulin but increases the body response to its own insulin. Yet another drug, acarbose, works by delaying absorption of glucose in the intestine. Oral hypoglycaemic drugs are usually prescribed for people with type II diabetes if ___________ and exercise fail to lower blood sugar levels adequately.



Monitoring treatment. Monitoring blood sugar levels is an essential part of diabetes care. Fortunately, it can be performed at ______ with the help of a special machine. Diabetics are taught to adjust insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs dose on their own between visits to their _________ .




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