Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С

Дата конвертації24.01.2021
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Supplementary Reading

  1. Read the text and answer the questions.

  1. What can Cushing’s syndrome be caused by?

  2. What are the symptoms of Addison’s disease?

  3. Is virilization the development of exaggerated masculine or feminine characteristics?

  4. Symptoms of hypoglycaemia are treated by consuming sugar, aren’t they?

  5. What disorder is called galactorrhoea?

  6. Why may body changes associated with puberty occur at an abnormally young age in some kids?

  7. What does treatment of SAD consist of?

Hormonal Disorders

Too much or too little of any hormone can be harmful to the body. For example, if the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone, a child may grow excessively tall. If it produces too little, a child may be abnormally short. Controlling the production of or replacing specific hormones can treat many endocrine disorders in children and adolescents, some of which include:

Excessive amounts of glucocorticoid hormones in the body can lead to Cushing’s syndrome. The condition may be due to a tumour in the pituitary gland that produces excessive amounts of corticotrophin and stimulates the adrenals to overproduce corticosteroids. Symptoms may take years to develop and include obesity, growth failure, muscle weakness, easy bruising of the skin, acne, high blood pressure, and psychological changes. Depending on the specific cause, doctors may treat this condition with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or drugs that block the production of hormones.

In Addison’s disease, the adrenal glands are underactive, resulting in a deficiency of adrenal hormones. Addison’s disease may be caused by an autoimmune reaction, cancer, an infection, or some other disease. A person feels weak, tired, and dizzy when standing up after sitting or lying down and may develop dark skin patches. People are given corticosteroids and fluids.

Virilization is the development of exaggerated masculine characteristics, usually in women, often as a result of the adrenal glands overproducing androgens (testosterone and similar hormones). Symptoms include excess facial and body hair, baldness, acne, deepening of the voice, increased muscularity, and an increased sex drive. The adrenal gland that contains the tumour is surgically removed, although sometimes drugs can reduce the excess hormone production.

Hypoglycaemia is abnormally low levels of glucose in the blood. It can be caused by drugs taken to control diabetes, fasting, some severe diseases, reactions to carbohydrates, a tumour in the pancreas, and some types of stomach surgery. A fall in blood sugar causes symptoms such as sweating, fatigue, and weakness, whereas severe hypoglycemia causes symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma. Symptoms of hypoglycaemia are treated by consuming sugar in any form.

Galactorrhoea is the production of breast milk in men or in women who are not breastfeeding. The most common cause of galactorrhea is a tumour in the pituitary gland. When drugs alone do not stop prolactin production or shrink the tumour, surgery and sometimes radiation therapy may be done.

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