Overproduction of growth hormone is almost always caused by a benign pituitary _______ . Certain rare tumours of the pancreas and lungs also can produce hormones that stimulate the pituitary to produce excessive amounts of ______ , with similar _____ .
If ____ growth hormone production starts before the growth plates have closed, the condition produces gigantism. The long bones grow _____ . A person grows to unusually great stature, and the arms and legs _______ . Puberty may be delayed, and the genitals may not develop fully.
In most cases, excessive production of growth hormone ______ between the ages of 30 and 50. Increased growth hormone in _______ produces acromegaly, in which the bones become deformed rather than elongated.
Overgrowth of the _____ can cause the jaw to protrude. Cartilage in the voice box may thicken, making the _______ deep and husky. The ribs may thicken, creating a barrel ________ . Crippling degenerative arthritis may occur.
In both _____ and acromegaly, the tongue may enlarge and become more furrowed. The sebaceous and sweat glands in the _______ enlarge, producing excessive ______ and often an offensive body odour. The heart usually enlarges, and its function may be so severely impaired that ________ occurs. Nerves that carry messages from the eyes to the _______ may also be compressed, causing loss of ________ .
Nearly all women with acromegaly have irregular ___________ . Some women produce breast milk even though they are not breastfeeding (______). About one third of men who have ________ develop erectile dysfunction. There is also an increased likelihood of developing diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart failure, sleep apnoea, and certain tumours. Life _______ is reduced in people with untreated acromegaly.