Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С

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Дата конвертації24.01.2021
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adults, growth hormone, menstrual cycles, voice, gigantism, tumour, skin, heart failure, brain, lengthen, consequences, excessive, enormously, begins, mandible, chest, perspiration, vision, acromegaly, expectancy, galactorrhoea

Gigantism and Acromegaly

Overproduction of growth hormone is almost always caused by a benign pituitary _______ . Certain rare tumours of the pancreas and lungs also can produce hormones that stimulate the pituitary to produce excessive amounts of ______ , with similar _____ .

If ____ growth hormone production starts before the growth plates have closed, the condition produces gigantism. The long bones grow _____ . A person grows to unusually great stature, and the arms and legs _______ . Puberty may be delayed, and the genitals may not develop fully.

In most cases, excessive production of growth hormone ______ between the ages of 30 and 50. Increased growth hormone in _______ produces acromegaly, in which the bones become deformed rather than elongated.

Overgrowth of the _____ can cause the jaw to protrude. Cartilage in the voice box may thicken, making the _______ deep and husky. The ribs may thicken, creating a barrel ________ . Crippling degenerative arthritis may occur.

In both _____ and acromegaly, the tongue may enlarge and become more furrowed. The sebaceous and sweat glands in the _______ enlarge, producing excessive ______ and often an offensive body odour. The heart usually enlarges, and its function may be so severely impaired that ________ occurs. Nerves that carry messages from the eyes to the _______ may also be compressed, causing loss of ________ .

Nearly all women with acromegaly have irregular ___________ . Some women produce breast milk even though they are not breastfeeding (______). About one third of men who have ________ develop erectile dysfunction. There is also an increased likelihood of developing diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart failure, sleep apnoea, and certain tumours. Life _______ is reduced in people with untreated acromegaly.

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