Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С

parturition. The inner part of the adrenal gland

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  • The inner part of the adrenal gland secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.

  • Testes and ovaries are the main source of gonadal hormones.

  • Androgens control body changes associated with sexual development, including the growth spurt during pubescence, and the appearance of other masculine secondary sex characteristics.

  • Estrogen is involved in the development of female sexual characteristics such as breast enlargement and the storage of body fat around the huckles and thighs.

    1. Choose the antonym on the right to the words in italics.

    to reduce




    to raise



    to suppress


    to increase



    to stimulate

    to lower


    to dilate

    to accelerate


    to constrict

    to slow down









    1. Complete the following sentences choosing suitable words from the box.

    nervous system, endocrine system, receptor protein, base, middle, melatonin, nervous system, messenger, diabetics, sperm, pain, slowly, faster, pituitary gland

    1. ______ controls body processes that happen _______ , such as cell growth; ______ processes like breathing and body movement are controlled by the ________ .

    2. Hormone is a chemical ________ that transports a signal from one cell to another.

    3. The hormone binds to the ______ , resulting in the activation of a signal transduction mechanism that ultimately leads to cell type-specific responses.

    4. The ________ is located at the _______ of the brain and is often called the “master gland”.

    5. Endorphins are chemicals that act on the ______ to reduce sensitivity to ____ .

    6. Working with hormones from the pituitary gland, testosterone supports the production of _________ by the testes.

    7. Pineal gland is located in the ______ of the brain; it secretes _________ , a hormone that affects skin pigmentation.

    8. Insulin is used by many _______ .

    1. Solve the crossword puzzle.

    1. A neural control centre at the base of the brain, just above the pituitary, concerned with hunger, thirst, satiety, and other autonomic functions.

    2. The branch of medical science concerned with the endocrine glands and their secretions.

    3. A large elongated glandular organ, situated behind the stomach, that secretes insulin and pancreatic juice.

    4. A glandular organ, consisting of two lobes situated below the thyroid. In early life it produces lymphocytes and is thought to influence certain immunological responses. It atrophies with age and is almost nonexistent in the adult.

    5. Testes and ovaries.

    6. The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

    7. The inner part of the adrenal gland.







    1 H







    1. Exclude the unnecessary term from the logical sequence. Explain your choice.

    1. Pituitary gland, adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis, parathyroids.

    2. Growth hormone, adrenal gland, thyroid gland, pineal gland.

    3. Somatotrophin, melatonin, follitrophin, corticotrophin.

    4. Gonads, testes, islets of Langerhans, ovaries.

    5. Insulin, testosterone, estrogen, progesterone.

    6. Corticosteroid, adrenaline, norepinephrine, master gland.

    7. Endocrine, endoscope, endocrinologist, endocrinology.

    8. Hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal gland, pancreas.

    1. Say what hormone is it spoken about.

    1. A hormone synthesized in and secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that promotes growth of the long bones in the limbs and increases the synthesis of protein essential for growth.

    2. A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland: it stimulates the activity of the thyroid gland.

    3. A polypeptide hormone, secreted by the adenohypophysis, which stimulates growth of the adrenal gland and the synthesis and secretion of corticosteroids.

    4. A polypeptide hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. It increases the reabsorption of water by the kidney tubules and increases blood pressure by constricting the arteries.

    5. A polypeptide hormone, secreted by the posterior pituitary that stimulates contractions of the uterus for aiding childbirth.

    6. An amino acid hormone that contains iodine and is secreted by the thyroid gland with thyroxine, to which it has a similar action.

    7. A polypeptide hormone, produced in the pancreas by the islets of Langerhans that stimulates the release of glucose into the blood.

    8. A hormone that is secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress and increases heart rate, pulse rate, and blood pressure, and raises the blood levels of glucose and lipids.

    9. One of a group of steroid hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, which stimulate the development of male sex organs and male secondary sex characteristics. The principal source of these hormones is the testes but they are also excreted by the adrenal cortex and ovaries in small amounts. In women excessive production of these hormones gives rise to masculinization.

    10. A hormone produced by the pineal gland in darkness, regulating the wake-sleep cycle, causing skin colour changes and thought to be involved in reproductive function.

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