The specialized organs, collectively, concerned with external respiration; it includes the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.
The organs responsible for immunity: the primary lymphoid organs are the thymus and the bone marrow; the secondary lymphoid organs are the lymph nodes and lymphoid aggregates (spleen, tonsils, etc).
The set of organs in the body such as the stomach, duodenum, small and large intestine, etc. that digest the food a person eats.
The system which consists of the heart together with two networks of blood vessels – the systemic circulation and the pulmonary circulation. It effects the circulation of blood around the body, which brings about transport of nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and the removal of waste products.
The system of glands such as hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid that produce hormones which go directly into the bloodstream.
The system which includes bones, muscles, and joints. It has several important functions in the body, namely protection and support of internal organs, assisting in body movement, etc.
Match the following English word combinations with the Ukrainian ones.
Although we rarely think about them, the glands of the endocrine system and the hormones they release influence almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies. In general, the endocrine system is in charge of body processes that happen slowly, such as cell growth. Faster processes like breathing and body movement are controlled by the nervous system.
The foundations of the endocrine system are the hormones and glands. As the body’s chemical messengers, hormones transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another. Although many different hormones circulate throughout the bloodstream, each one affects only the cells that are genetically programmed to receive and respond to its message. Hormone levels can be influenced by factors such as stress, infection, and changes in the balance of fluid and minerals in blood.
The major glands that make up the human endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal gland, and the gonads. The pancreas is also part of this hormone-secreting system, even though it is also associated with the digestive system as it secretes digestive enzymes.
Thehypothalamus, a collection of specialized cells located in the lower central part of the brain, is the primary link between the endocrine and nervous systems. Nerve cells in the hypothalamus control the pituitary gland by producing chemicals that either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions from the pituitary.
Although it is no bigger than a pea, thepituitary gland, located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus, is often called the “master gland” because it makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands.
The tiny pituitary is divided into two parts: the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. The anterior pituitary regulates the activity of the thyroid, adrenals, and reproductive glands. Among the hormones it produces are: growth hormone (GH), which stimulates protein synthesis in organs and tissues and causes growth; follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which stimulates development and maturation of a follicle in a woman’s ovary; luteinizing hormone (LH), which causes ovulation and the formation of a corpus luteum; prolactin (PRL), which activates milk production in breastfeeding women; thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones; corticotrophin (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal gland to produce certain hormones.
The pituitary also secretes endorphins, chemicals that act on the nervous system to reduce sensitivity to pain. The natural response to rub an injured area helps to release endorphins in that area. People who exercise a lot and push their bodies “until it hurts” thereby stimulate the production of endorphins. Some people who constantly over-exercise may actually be addicted to their own endorphins.
The posterior pituitary releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps control body water balance; and oxytocin, which triggers uterine contractions that occur during labour.
The body has two triangular adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands have two parts. The outer part, the adrenal cortex, produces hormones called corticosteroids that influence or regulate salt and water balance in the body, the body’s response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development and function.
The inner part, the adrenal medulla secretes adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). Adrenaline influences intracellular metabolism, intensifies and accelerates cardiac contraction, constricts arterioles, dilates bronchial tubes and stimulates the production of glucose from a substance called glycogen. Noradrenaline stimulates uterine contraction and in man it increases the peripheral vascular resistance and systolic and diastolic pressure. Both epinephrine and norepinephrine raise blood pressure, increase heartbeat, respiration and sweating.
The gonads are the main source of sex hormones. Male gonads, or testes, secrete hormones called androgens, the most important of which is testosterone. These hormones regulate body changes associated with sexual development, including enlargement of the penis, the growth spurt during puberty, and the appearance of other male secondary sex characteristics such as deepening of the voice, growth of facial and pubic hair, and the increase in muscle growth and strength. Working with hormones from the pituitary gland, testosterone also supports the production of sperm by the testes.
The female gonads, the ovaries, secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is involved in the development of female sexual features such as breast growth, the accumulation of body fat around the hips and thighs, and the growth spurt during puberty. Both estrogen and progesterone are also involved in pregnancy and the regulation of the menstrual cycle.
Located in the middle of the brain the pineal gland secretes melatonin, a hormone that may help regulate the wake-sleep cycle and affects skin pigmentation (it causes the skin to turn lighter).
The islets of Langerhansin the pancreas secrete glucagon and insulin. The first raises the blood sugar level; the latter lowers it and affects the metabolism of glucose, protein, and fat throughout the body.
Although the endocrine glands are the body’s main hormone producers, some non-endocrine organs – such as the brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, thymus, skin, and placenta – also produce and release hormones.
Post-Text Assignments Substitute the words in bold type by a word or a combination of words from the text. The endocrine system is responsible for body processes that go on slowly.
The fundamentals of the endocrine system are the hormones and glands.
The adenohypophysis produces such hormones as somatotrophin, follitrophin, luteinizing hormone, luteotrophin, thyrotrophin and adrenocorticotrophic hormone.
The neurohypophysis releases vasopressin, which helps control body water balance; and oxytocin, which triggers uterine contractions that occur during