Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С



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Post-Text Assignments

  1. Three words in each row have similar meaning, but one word has a completely different meaning. Find the word that has different meaning.

subsequent

consequent

following

previous

encounter

conflict

confrontation

fear

to respect

to trigger

to provoke

to activate

to dilate

to constrict

to widen

to expand

to block

to obstruct

to close

to promote

benefit

poison

venom

toxin

rash

sprain

hives

eruption

upset

disorder

disturbance

well-being

success

failure

deficiency

collapse

drastic

extreme

mild

severe

prior

former

later

previous

trial

experiment

condition

investigation

to suspect

to doubt

to guess

to confirm

site

place

failure

location

reliable

dangerous

faithful

true

to scratch

to detect

to rub

to scrape

obliquely

immediately

instantly

directly

available

out of reach

accessible

attainable

to eliminate

to exclude

to include

to omit

to administer

to prescribe

to order

to reject




  1. Fill in the gaps with missing words from the box.




accumulation, dust, animals, advice, diseases,

symptoms, earaches, hearing, access, prescribed

Allergies lead to inflammation in the ear and may cause fluid _________________that can promote ear infections and decreased ___________. If this happens when the child is learning to talk, poor speech may result. Allergies can cause _______________ as well as ear itching, popping and fullness (“stopped up ears”). Anyone with these symptoms should be considered for testing and treatment.

If your child has asthma or severe allergy, provide your child’s action plan to the school nurse or administrative office. Also discuss your child’s ___________to medication in case of an emergency.

Furry ________________ in school may cause problems for allergic children. If your child has more problems while at school, it could be the class pet.

Physical education and sports are a big part of the school day for many children. Having asthma does not mean eliminating these activities. Children with asthma and other allergic ___________ should be able to participate in any sport the child chooses, provided the doctor’s ___________is followed. Asthma ______________ during exercise may indicate poorly control. Be sure that your child is taking controller asthma medications on a regular basis. Often medication administered by an inhaler is _____________ before exercise to control their symptoms.

At school, children with allergic problems may need to sit away from the blackboards to avoid irritation from chalk ______________.




  1. Match types of allergens with their definitions.

fine, dry powder consisting of tiny particles of earth or waste matter lying on the ground or on surfaces or carried in the air

dander

a furry growth of minute fungi occurring typically in moist warm conditions, especially on food or other organic matter

venom

a fine powder produced by flowers. It fertilizes other flowers of the same species so that they produce seeds.

dye

flakes of skin in an animal’s fur or hair

dust

fluid secreted by animals such as snakes and scorpions and typically injected into prey or aggressors by biting or stinging

pollen

a natural or synthetic substance used to add a colour to or change the colour of something

peanut

the oval seed of a tropical South American plant, often roasted and salted and eaten as a snack or used to make oil or animal feed

mould




  1. Fill in the gaps with missing prepositions.

The best food ___ a newborn is mother’s milk. However, some especially sensitive babies can have allergic reactions ___ foods their mothers eat. Babies can be tested ____ allergies. Eliminating these foods ___ the mother’s diet may provide relief ___ the child.

As infants grow, their nutritional needs continue to change and your physician will advise when it is time ____ solid foods.



Cow’s milk can cause allergies ___ children, but it is a good source ___ protein and calcium. Milk should be eliminated ____ a child’s diet only if you are sure the child is allergic ___ it. Parents may suspect allergy if the child exhibits hives after the ingestion ____ milk or other dairy products. If you suspect your child may be allergic ____ milk, consult your physician, who may conduct appropriate tests to verify the allergy and prescribe the proper course ____ treatment ______ children allergies.


  1. Complete the sentences with the symptoms from the box.




hay fever, wheeze, watery, sneeze, rash, itchy, swelling, runny nose




  1. An allergic reaction can often be nothing more than red eyes, a ___________ or wheeziness.

  2. When you cough or ________, you propel some tiny particles into the air.

  3. You may also have a dry irritating cough, a sore throat and a runny, _______ nose.

  4. Children can have ________, and despite the name, spring is not an uncommon time for its symptoms to appear.

  5. My mother comes out in a _______ if she eats seafood.

  6. This condition normally gives rise to severe ________, known as oedema, in various parts of the body.

  7. His eyes were _______, tears collected at the corners.

  8. People with asthma may start to ___________ .




  1. Say whether the following statements are true or false.

  1. Histamine is the substance that causes allergic reactions.

  2. Allergens include food, venom, insect stings, dust, pollen, etc.

  3. Symptoms are typical for all allergic reactions.

  4. Allergy is a hereditary disease; it is transmitted from parents to their children.

  5. Rhinitis is the most common sign of all allergies.

  6. Anaphylactic shock is a severe and often life-threatening allergic reaction.

  7. Antihistamines are drugs used to treat allergies.

  8. Avoiding allergens altogether is the most effective way of controlling allergy.

  9. Allergic reaction does not usually occur during the first exposure to an allergen.




  1. Answer the following questions.

  1. When does allergic reaction occur?

  2. What are the most common allergens?

  3. What are the symptoms of allergic reaction?

  4. What may allergic reaction result in?

  5. How is it possible to determine the cause of an allergic reaction?

  6. What is the treatment for allergy?

  7. What is anaphylactic shock?




  1. Translate into English.

  1. Алергія – гіперчутливість організму тварин чи людини до чужорідних речовин, що вводяться повторно.

  2. Алергени можуть потрапляти в організм через шкіру і слизові оболонки або надходити в крові з вогнищ запалення.

  3. Механізм виникнення алергії: як тільки алерген потрапляє в людський організм, на його знешкодження виділяється певна кількість антитіл, якщо в організмі є деякі розлади, то антитіл виділиться в надлишку, що призведе до виділення надмірної кількості високомолекулярних сполук, які і спричиняють розвиток алергії.

  4. Молекули гістаміну у великих кількостях виділяються в кров, коли, наприклад, пилок рослин провокує імунну реакцію. І як наслідок – розширення судин, виділення рідини з дрібних судин, почервоніння шкіри. Це подразнює слизову оболонку носоглотки та викликає нежить і чхання.

  5. Якщо один із батьків страждає на алергію, існує 25% вірогідність того, що у його дитини розвинеться алергія. Шанс захворіти на алергію збільшується до 75-80%, якщо на алергію страждають обоє батьків.

  6. Алергія сама по собі – дуже неприємний стан. Сильний нежить, набряки, свербіж і почервоніння очей. При алергії підвищується стомлюваність, посилюється дратівливість, знижується імунітет. Алергія може провокувати різні захворювання, наприклад такі як: як екзема, гемолітична анемія, бронхіальна астма. Найсерйознішими із можливих проявів алергії – анафілактичний шок: утруднення дихання, судоми, втрата свідомості, значне зниження артеріального тиску, аж до загибелі людини.

  7. Головне у лікуванні алергічного стану – виявити саме той алерген, який викликає нездужання.


Grammar: The Complex Sentence. Subject Clauses


They perform the function of subject to the predicate of the principal clause. Attention should be paid to the peculiar structure of the principal clause, which in this case has no subject, the subordinate clause serving as such.




  1. Read and translate the following sentences. Find subject clauses.

  1. It was unfortunate that the patient was brought in during the evening.

  2. What is done cannot be undone.

  3. Whatever I can do for you will be nothing but paying a debt.

  4. It was plain that he was aware of his own defect of memory.

  5. It was Mr. Brown who spoke first.

  6. It is a pity her brother should be quite a stranger to her.

  7. What I want to do is to save patient’s life.

  8. It was always possible that they might encounter some one.




  1. Translate into English using Participle I or Participle II.

  1. Алергія – це захворювання, яке може виникнути раптово, і так само раптово зникнути.

  2. Людям, що страждають на алергію, рекомендують дотримуватися спеціальної дієти.

  3. Алергік починає відчувати гострий неприємний біль в очах, подразнення в носі, що призводить до фізіологічного порушення дихання.

  4. У світі існують підприємства, які виробляють товари саме для людей, що страждають на алергію.

  5. Тим, у кого гіперчутливість до певних продуктів харчування, фахівці пропонують обрати індивідуальну дієту і не порушувати її.

  6. Речовини, які викликають алергію (так звані алергени), здебільшого мають білкове походження.

  7. Людина може страждати на сінну гарячку (полінозу), викликану пилком рослин.

  8. Алергія (від грец. allos – інший, ergon – діяльність, активність) – підвищена чутливість організму до дії деяких факторів навколишнього середовища (хімічних речовин, мікроорганізмів та продуктів їх життєдіяльності, харчових продуктів та ін), які називаються алергенами.


Speaking

  1. Speak on the following items.

  1. Increase in allergy cases.

  2. Food allergy.

  3. Hay fever.

  4. Anaphylactic shock.

  5. Ways of preventing allergy.




  1. Read and remember the following word combinations and their meanings.

allergen challenge /

allergization

стимуляція алергеном, алергізація

allergen-free vaccine

безалергенна вакцина

allergenic capacity / allergenic potency / allergenicity

алергенність

allergenic (allergic) serum

алергенна сироватка

allerggist / allergologist

алерголог

allergic anamnesis

алергологічний анамнез

allergic death

смерть від анафілактичного шоку

allergic dermatitis

алергічний дерматит

allergic experiment (test)

алерготест, алергічна проба

allergic response /

allergic reaction

алергічна реакція

allergic rhinitis

алергічний риніт

allergic shock / anaphylactic shock

анафілактичний шок

allergic state

алергостатус

allergosorbent

алергосорбент




  1. Remember the following word combinations.

fine / powdery dust – дрібний пил

a cloud of dustхмара пилу

a trail of dust – шлейф пилу

gold dust – золотий, золотоносний пісок

volcanic dust – вулканічний пил

house dust – домашній пил

to raise dust – піднімати пил

to be allergic to house dust – мати алергію на домашній пил

dust collects – пил збирається

to wait for the dust to settle – чекати поки пил осяде

to neutralize venom – знешкоджувати дію отрути, вводити протиотруту

to spew / spout venom at smb. – вилити злобу на когось

the venom of a spiteful satireотрута злобної сатири

the venom of a snake/a scorpion/a spider – отрута змії/скорпіона/павука

fingers itch to give smb. a thrashing – руки сверблять побити когось

to scratch smb. where he/she itches – уступити чиїмось слабкостям

to relieve itch – полегшити свербіж

itch for money / gain – жадоба грошей/наживи

itch to go away – нестерпне бажання піти

sting and ling – насильно, примусово

a sting in its tail – скрите жало, найнеприємніше вкінці

take the sting out of smth. – намагатися пом’ягшити щось, послабити враження від чогось

hair dye – фарба для волосся

fading dye – нестійка фарба

fast dye – стійка фарба

natural dyes – природні барвники

synthetic dyesсинтетичні барвники

to take a dye – фарбуватися

to apply a dye to – наносити фарбу на

drastic remedies – сильнодіючі ліки

drastic alterations – докорінні зміни

drastic measures – рішучі міри
Supplementary Reading

Food Allergy

  1. Read and discuss the text.

What is food allergy?

Food allergy is when your immune system reacts to a particular food. This causes inflammation of the body’s tissues, which in some cases can be life-threatening. It should not be confused with food intolerance, which is completely different. In both cases you get symptoms when you eat even small quantities of certain foods. But food intolerance is not caused by the immune system. This means symptoms are usually limited to the digestive system (vomiting, diarrhoea) and are rarely life-threatening.



Who’s at risk?

A lot of people avoid eating certain foods because they mistakenly believe they are allergic to them. Actual food allergy is rare and tends to run in families. Only 5 to 8 in 100 infants and 1 to 2 in 100 adults have a food allergy. You are more at risk if you or any family members have other allergic diseases, such as eczema, asthma and hay fever. If you suspect that you are allergic to a type of food, you should get a diagnosis from your doctor or a qualified specialist in allergic diseases before making substantial changes to your diet.



Why do you become allergic to food?

You develop an allergy when your immune system overreacts to foreign proteins and produces antibodies that attack the body’s own tissues. The foreign protein that causes the reaction is known as an allergen. In food allergy, a particular type of food is the allergen. A food allergy is a type 1 allergy. In this type of allergy, the immune system produces antibodies called IgE-antibody in response to the allergen. The body only produces IgE after exposure to the allergen. This means your body will produce more IgE the next time you eat that food. If enough of this antibody is produced, it will cause symptoms, such as rash and swelling. You cannot get allergic symptoms the first time you eat a new kind of food. But because traces of foods are found within other foods, e.g. nuts in chocolate, you may not be aware of the first time you came into contact with a particular allergen.



Food allergens and cross-reacting allergens

In principle you can be allergic to all kinds of food, but reactions to the following are most common: shellfish, milk, fish, soya beans, wheat, eggs, peanuts, fruit and vegetables, tree nuts – such as walnuts, brazil nuts, almonds and pistachios.

Sometimes a food can be exposed to other allergens and they can cause your body to react to the food. This is known as a “cross- reaction”.

Birch pollen cross-reacts with: hazelnut, walnut, almond and other nuts; apple, pear, cherry, plum and kiwi; potato peel, tomato and carrot; grass cross-reacts with beans and green peas.




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