Hypersensitivity is a harmful overreaction by the immune system, commonly known as ___________. In this case, a person is more sensitive to a particular antigen than the average individual. Common _________ are pollen, animal dander, dust, and foods, etc. Responses may include itching, redness or tearing of the eyes, _________ rash, asthma, sneezing, and ___________ (hives). An _____________ is a severe generalized allergic response that can lead rapidly to death as a result of shock and interference with breathing. It must be treated by immediate administration of adrenaline, maintenance of open airways, and ____________. The term ____________ refers to any failure in the ___________ system. This may be ___________ (present at birth) or ____________, and may involve any components of the system. The deficiency may vary in severity, but is always evidenced by an increased ____________ to disease.
Complete the table.
Match the English word combinations with their Ukrainian equivalents.
small amounts of a suspected allergen are placed on the skin
свербіж, сльозовиділення та почервоніння очей
exposure to an allergy-causing substance
allergic reaction triggers the blood vessels to dilate
тести проводять методом проб і помилок
tests usually involve trial and error
крапельне вливання в носоглотку
The first exposure to an allergy-causing substance, known as an allergen, does not result in an allergic reaction. For unknown reasons, the immune system becomes sensitized to the substance and responds to subsequent encounters with an immune reaction. In a normal immune response, the body recognizes a foreign material, such as a virus or a toxin, as dangerous and develops antibodies to locate and destroy it. When the body again encounters that type of a particle or substance, the immune system is easily mobilized to destroy it.
The specific antibodies produced in an allergic reaction are known as Immunoglobulin E (IgE). These antibodies trigger the release of histamine and other chemicals when exposed to an allergen. Histamine is a chemical transmitter that can cause various changes in the body. For example, in the nose it causes blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable. In the lungs, histamine causes swelling of the airways that, if severe, can block breathing.
A particle or substance that triggers an allergic response is known as an allergen. Common allergens include dust, mould, pollen, drugs, animal dander, insect venom, poison ivy, food, heat, and cold. Heat and cold are not particles themselves, but it is thought that exposure to heat or cold triggers chemical changes in the body that the immune system responds to as if they were invading particles. Foods most likely to provoke an allergic response include cow’s milk, egg whites, peanuts and other legumes, nuts, and wheat.
Symptoms of an allergic reaction vary depending on the type of allergen, how it entered the system, and the location in the body at which contact occurred. An inhaled allergen can cause sinus congestion, runny nose, watery eyes, or wheezing and impaired breathing. An allergic reaction caused by contact between an allergen and the skin can result in itching, rash, or hives, raised itchy bumps on the skin. An allergic reaction to a food or a drug can greatly vary and may affect the entire body; reactions may include abdominal pain or upset, hives, swelling, or inability to breathe.
Children may inherit the tendency to become allergic from their parents, but only some of them will develop an active allergic disease. Children’s allergies can show up in different ways including: skin rashes (atopic dermatitis or eczema); asthma; allergic rhinitis (also known as “hay fever”); food allergies.