Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С

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Unit 14


The Complex Sentence. Subject Clauses

Pre-Text Assignments

  1. Learn the following words.

bump, n


пухлина, гуля

congestion, n


накопичення, застій

dander, n


лупа, шматочки волосся чи пір’я тварин, які можуть спричинити алергію в людей, схильних до неї

dust, n



encounter, n


зіткнення, сутичка, зустріч

hives, n


кропивниця, висип

mould, n



permeable, adj



poison ivy, n

['pPIz(q) 'aIvI]

сумах, отруйний плющ

pollen, n



sensitization, n



sting, v



venom, n



wheezing, n


хрипіння, задишка

  1. Fill in the blanks with the words from the table.

antihistamines, congenital, skin, allergy, urticaria,

anaphylactic reaction, allergens, immunodeficiency, susceptibility, acquired, immune

Hypersensitivity is a harmful overreaction by the immune system, commonly known as ___________. In this case, a person is more sensitive to a particular antigen than the average individual. Common _________ are pollen, animal dander, dust, and foods, etc. Responses may include itching, redness or tearing of the eyes, _________ rash, asthma, sneezing, and ___________ (hives). An _____________ is a severe generalized allergic response that can lead rapidly to death as a result of shock and interference with breathing. It must be treated by immediate administration of adrenaline, maintenance of open airways, and ____________. The term ____________ refers to any failure in the ___________ system. This may be ___________ (present at birth) or ____________, and may involve any components of the system. The deficiency may vary in severity, but is always evidenced by an increased ____________ to disease.

  1. Complete the table.




to neutralize



to include



to impair



to invade

to suspect


to avoid

  1. Match the English word combinations with their Ukrainian equivalents.

histamine causes swelling of the airways

життєвозагрозливі стани

insect venom

повністю уникати алергена

hay fever

раптове зниження кров’яного тиску

postnasal drip

невеликі кількості ймовірного алергену наносять на шкіру

nasal congestion


life-threatening conditions

гістамін викликає набряк повітроносних шляхів

drastic drop in blood pressure

піддавання впливу речовини, що викликає алерген

itchy, watery and red eyes

алергічна реакція викликає розширення кровоносних судин

to avoid the allergen altogether

отрута комах

small amounts of a suspected allergen are placed on the skin

свербіж, сльозовиділення та почервоніння очей

exposure to an allergy-causing substance

сінна лихоманка

runny nose

закладеність носа

allergic reaction triggers the blood vessels to dilate

тести проводять методом проб і помилок

tests usually involve trial and error

крапельне вливання в носоглотку


The first exposure to an allergy-causing substance, known as an allergen, does not result in an allergic reaction. For unknown reasons, the immune system becomes sensitized to the substance and responds to subsequent encounters with an immune reaction. In a normal immune response, the body recognizes a foreign material, such as a virus or a toxin, as dangerous and develops antibodies to locate and destroy it. When the body again encounters that type of a particle or substance, the immune system is easily mobilized to destroy it.

The specific antibodies produced in an allergic reaction are known as Immunoglobulin E (IgE). These antibodies trigger the release of histamine and other chemicals when exposed to an allergen. Histamine is a chemical transmitter that can cause various changes in the body. For example, in the nose it causes blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable. In the lungs, histamine causes swelling of the airways that, if severe, can block breathing.

A particle or substance that triggers an allergic response is known as an allergen. Common allergens include dust, mould, pollen, drugs, animal dander, insect venom, poison ivy, food, heat, and cold. Heat and cold are not particles themselves, but it is thought that exposure to heat or cold triggers chemical changes in the body that the immune system responds to as if they were invading particles. Foods most likely to provoke an allergic response include cow’s milk, egg whites, peanuts and other legumes, nuts, and wheat.

Symptoms of an allergic reaction vary depending on the type of allergen, how it entered the system, and the location in the body at which contact occurred. An inhaled allergen can cause sinus congestion, runny nose, watery eyes, or wheezing and impaired breathing. An allergic reaction caused by contact between an allergen and the skin can result in itching, rash, or hives, raised itchy bumps on the skin. An allergic reaction to a food or a drug can greatly vary and may affect the entire body; reactions may include abdominal pain or upset, hives, swelling, or inability to breathe.

Children may inherit the tendency to become allergic from their parents, but only some of them will develop an active allergic disease. Children’s allergies can show up in different ways including: skin rashes (atopic dermatitis or eczema); asthma; allergic rhinitis (also known as “hay fever”); food allergies.

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