голки повинні бути безпечно знищені після кожного застосування
перша поява симптомів
to augment reaction of the immune system to HIV
тест, спеціально призначений для виявлення ВІЛ-2
needles should be safely disposed after each use
a confirmatory test
обмін рідинами тіла
a test specifically designed to detect HIV-2
незначна переміжна лихоманка
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
Two main strains of the HIV virus, HIV-1 and HIV-2, cause AIDS. HIV-1 is more common in the Western Hemisphere, Europe, Asia, and most of Africa. HIV-2 is more prevalent in West Africa; it is transmitted less easily and progresses less quickly to AIDS than HIV-1. In both strains, the virus may persist at low levels for years in a host without causing disease. The only sign of infection will be the presence of antibodies against the virus. Once immunodeficiency occurs, if left untreated, death usually follows within two to three years of the first onset of symptoms. The HIV virus itself does not kill the patient. Instead, it destroys the immune system, leaving the patient susceptible to other diseases, especially certain types of cancers and pneumonia. These diseases are the immediate causes of death.
HIV infects a specific type of white blood cells called a T helper cell. More specifically, it attacks T helper cells that have a protein known as CD4 on the outer membrane. This kind of cell is essential in triggering the immune response to infection or other foreign materials. The HIV virus invades CD4 cells and inserts its own genetic material into them. Thus, it uses the cell’s resources to create more copies of the virus and eventually kills the CD4 cell. After enough CD4 cells are destroyed, the body is no longer able to fight off infection or destroy cancerous cells.
Transmission. The AIDS virus is transmitted through body fluids such as blood, breast milk, etc. Casual contact with an infected person does not result in the transmission of the virus. The most efficient methods of HIV transmission include having sexual intercourse in which there is an exchange of body fluids, sharing needles for IV drugs, and receiving transfusions of contaminated blood or blood products. The virus can also be transmitted through organ or tissue transplants. An infected mother may pass the virus on to her unborn child. A person who does not exhibit any symptoms of AIDS may still be HIV positive and therefore capable of transmitting the virus. Susceptibility to HIV infection increases if there is a break in the skin or mucous membranes, which allows the virus to enter the bloodstream.
The earliest symptoms of HIV infection include a low-grade, intermittent fever, a rash, swollen lymph nodes, weight loss, and fatigue. A person, who is infected, however, may not experience any symptoms. After initial infection, several years may pass without any symptoms. As the immune system is affected and CD4 levels fall, the body becomes prey to various diseases, referred to as opportunistic diseases. AIDS patients often have the following opportunistic diseases: a type of skin cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma; a fungal infection called thrush, caused by the fungus Candida albicans, a fungal infection in the lungs, caused by Pneumocystis carinii; tuberculosis; cryptosporidium; a gastrointestinal infection; a viral infection in the brain called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; cytomegalovirus, that affects the retina and causes blindness; and, in women, cervical cancer.
Treatment. Various drugs have been developed to fight the AIDS virus. The oldest of these drugs is AZT (zidovudine). Another medication is called DDI (didanosine). These drugs work by attempting to disrupt key chemical reactions in HIV’s metabolic cycle, including those controlling its reproduction. However, the virus mutates rapidly, and the drugs eventually lose their effectiveness. Recently, newer and more effective drugs have been developed in the fight against AIDS. The most promising new medications include a class of drugs known as protease inhibitors. They prevent the virus from being able to break down proteins in the host cells. Protease inhibitors can reduce viral loads to undetectable levels, enabling patients to live normal lives. However, patients must continue to take these drugs indefinitely. There are some unpleasant side effects associated with their use and some indication that the drugs may lose their effectiveness after an extended period of time. Nonetheless, protease inhibitors convert AIDS from a fatal disease to a chronic condition. The most recently developed drugs can greatly prolong the lives of patients infected with HIV. Recently, clinical trials have been initiated exploring immune-based therapies, designed to augment reaction of the immune system to HIV.
Intravenous needles should be safely disposed after each use and should not be shared; safe sex should be practised. The chances of contracting AIDS from a blood transfusion have been minimized, as blood products are routinely tested for HIV before use. It has been found that taking the drug AZT (zidovudine) during pregnancy reduces the chances of passing HIV to the foetus to just 25 percent.
The HIV test consists of two tests. The first test is very sensitive: it finds something that looks like HIV antibodies. This test is used to screen blood and blood products. If the first test is positive, that is, if antibodies to HIV appear to be present, another test is done. The second is specific and is called a confirmatory test. It separates the false positives from the true positives of the first test. A person is HIV-positive only if the second test is positive for HIV antibodies. The standard HIV test only detects antibodies for HIV-1; a person who is infected with HIV-2 will test negative. If a person has reason to believe that he or she may have been exposed to HIV-2 in endemic countries in West Africa, he or she should receive a test specifically designed to detect HIV-2.
Post-Text Assignments Find synonyms in the text to the following words.
to find out
Change part of speech of the capitalized words to fill in the blanks. Translate the text.
AIDS is the most severe ACCELERATE _______________ of infection with HIV. HIV is a retrovirus that PRIMARY______________ infects vital organs of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells (a subset of T cells), macrophages and dendritic cells. It DIRECT_________ and indirectly destroys CD4+ T cells. Once HIV has killed so many CD4+ T cells that there are fewer than 200 of these cells per microlitre (µL) of blood, cellular immunity is lost. Acute HIV infection PROGRESS____________ over time to clinical latent HIV infection and then to early symptomatic HIV infection and later to AIDS, which is IDENTIFICATION_________________ either on the basis of the amount of CD4+ T cells remaining in the blood, and/or the PRESENT______________ of certain infections, as noted above. In the absence of antiretroviral therapy, the average time of progression from HIV infection to AIDS is nine to ten years, and the average SURVIVE_____________ time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months. However, the rate of clinical disease progression VARY_______________ widely between individuals from two weeks up to 20 years. Many factors affect the rate of progression. These include factors that influence the body’s ABLE______________ to defend against HIV such as the infected person’s general immune function. Older people have weaker immune systems, and, therefore, have a greater risk of rapid disease progression than younger people. Poor access to health care and the PRESENT____________ of coexisting infections such as tuberculosis may also predispose people to faster disease progression.The infected person’s genetic inheritance plays an important role and some people are RESISTANCE_____________ to certain strains of HIV. HIV is genetically VARY______________ and exists as different strains, which cause different rates of clinical disease progression.
Fill in the blanks with the missing information. Certain letters are given to help you.
AIDS is the worst sexually t________________ disease. It is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency ___________ (HIV) which attacks the immune system. The i____________ system usually plays an important part in fighting off infections. HIV is transmitted through contact with the i____________ person’s body fluids, such as semen, blood and vaginal secretions. HIV is not only transmitted by sexual intercourse, but also in infected blood t___________, from an infected expectant mother to her unborn child, or between drug addicts sharing an infected needle. HIV reduces the protective function of the immune system by destroying the cells that produce a______________ to fight against viruses and bacteria that enter the body. When the immune system breaks down, the person will then suffer many infections and diseases. These are called o_____________ infections because they take advantage of the body’s weakened defences. This is what we call Acquired Immune D____________ Syndrome (AIDS). A person can be infected with HIV for up to 10 years before showing any signs of AIDS. The person usually dies from one of these opportunistic infections, not from the HIV virus itself. Today there is no cure for AIDS. However, patients are usually treated for the various opportunistic infections. The drug AZT (azidothymidine) can cause the HIV virus to take much longer to develop into AIDS, and so prolong the life of an HIV-infected individual.
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate prepositions from the table.
to, through, with, in, of, by
Sharing and reusing syringes contaminated ______ HIV-infected blood represents a major risk for infection with HIV. Needle sharing is the cause ____ one third of all new HIV-infections ____ North America, China, and Eastern Europe. The risk ___ being infected with HIV from a single prick ___ a needle that has been used on an HIV-infected person is thought to be about 1 in 150. Post-exposure prophylaxis ___ anti-HIV drugs can further reduce this risk. This route can also affect people who give and receive tattoos and piercings. Universal precautions are frequently not followed ___ both sub-Saharan Africa and much of Asia because of both a shortage ___ supplies and inadequate training.
The WHO estimates that approximately 2.5% of all HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa are transmitted ____ unsafe healthcare injections. Because of this, the United Nations General Assembly has urged the nations ___ the world to implement precautions to prevent HIV transmission ___ health workers. The risk of transmitting HIV ____ blood transfusion recipients is extremely low ___ developed countries where improved donor selection and HIV screening is performed. However, according ___ the WHO, the overwhelming majority ____ the world population does not have access ____ safe blood and between 5% and 10% of the world’s HIV infections come from transfusion of infected blood and blood products.
Match the words in italics with their opposites.
Answer the following questions. What are the two main strain of HIV?
How can the AIDS virus be transmitted?
What are the main symptoms of AIDS?
What is the course of the disease?
What are the ways of the AIDS prevention?
Is it possible to transmit HIV to the unborn child?
What are the latest drugs used to fight AIDS?
When was the first case of AIDS reported?
What are the prognoses for the disease if left untreated?
What is the method of HIV testing?
Translate the following sentences into English.
СНІД (синдром набутого імунодефіциту) – важке інфекційне захворювання, спричинене вірусом імунодефіциту людини (ВІЛ), який пошкоджує імунну систему і, таким чином, знижує опірність організму проти будь-якого захворювання.
Синдром набутого імунодефіциту вперше було зафіксовано в США у 1981 році.
Вірус уражає Т-лімфоцити, що служать для його розмноження, та макрофаги, що розносять його по організму.
СНІД не є смертельною хворобою, але функціонування його вірусу в організмі впливає на імунну систему так, що навіть простий нежить може призвести до смерті людини.
ВІЛ руйнує Т-лімфоцити, і це призводить до втрати організмом захисних реакцій, внаслідок чого активізується так звана умовно-патогенна флора організму і різко підвищується ймовірність смертельних запалень, уражень нервової системи, розвитку онкологічних захворювань.
Оскільки ранній період ВІЛ-інфекції часто є безсимптомним, лікарі можуть виявити його лише за допомогою дослідження крові пацієнта на наявність у ній антитіл (протеїнів, за допомогою яких організм бореться з хворобою) до компонентів ВІЛ.
Діти, що народжуються від ВІЛ-інфікованих матерів, теж можуть бути уражені вірусом, але можуть бути і неінфікованими, проте у будь-якому випадку протягом перших кількох місяців життя мають у крові антитіла, отримані від матері.
Вірус СНІДу не стійкий, при кип’ятінні гине миттєво, при 56°С градусах протягом 10 хвилин. Можуть бути використані і спеціальні дезрозчини, але спирт не знищує ВІЛ.
У 1991 році в Україні прийнято перший Закон “Про запобігання захворюванню на СНІД та соціальний захист населення”. Цього ж року Франком Муром створено символ всесвітнього антиСНІДівського руху у вигляді червоної стрічки.
Fill in the blanks with the words from the table. Translate the text.
test, screening,neonates, window, maternal,
donor, HIV, repeat, pregnant, infection
Many people are unaware that they are infected with ______. Less than 1% of the sexually active urban population in Africa has been tested, and this proportion is even lower in rural populations. Furthermore, only 0.5% of __________ women attending urban health facilities are counselled, tested or receive their ______results. Again, this proportion is even lower in rural health facilities. Therefore, ___________ blood and blood products used in medicine and medical research are screened for HIV.
HIV tests are usually performed on venous blood. Many labouratories use fourth generation ___________ tests which detect anti-HIV antibody (IgG and IgM) and the HIV p24 antigen. The detection of HIV antibody or antigen in a patient previously known to be negative is evidence of HIV infection. Individuals whose first specimen indicates evidence of HIV infection will have a ____________ test on a second blood sample to confirm the results. The _____________ period (the time between initial infection and the development of detectable antibodies against the infection) can vary since it can take 3-6 months to seroconvert and to test positive. Detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during the window period is possible, and evidence suggests that an ______________ may often be detected earlier than when using a fourth generation EIA screening test. Positive results obtained by PCR are confirmed by antibody tests. Routinely used HIV tests for infection in ________________ and infants (i.e. patients younger than 2 years), born to HIV-positive mothers, have no value because of the presence of _________________ antibody to HIV in the child’s blood. HIV infection can only be diagnosed by PCR, testing for HIV pro-viral DNA in the children's lymphocytes.
Define the part of speech and give general characteristics of the italicized words in the text above.
Open the brackets to complete the sentences. Evidence shows that the AIDS virus may also attack the nervous system, (to cause) damage to the brain.
Our educators present a personal message, each one having had experience of (to care) for those (to die) with AIDS at home.
Unlike the virus that causes the flu, the AIDS virus can not be (to transmit) through the air.
A dentist from Florida is believed (to pass) HIV to six of his patients, one of whom died.
In this way, the immune system (to learn) to recognize and attack regions of real HIV if infection (to occur).
So it can not be ruled out that this man (to contract) his HIV from polio vaccine a few weeks before.
The group says children, like adults, should (to treat) with the now-standard cocktail of three different HIV drugs.
Grammar: The Complex Sentence
A complex sentence consists of a principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Clauses in a complex sentence may be linked in two ways:
Syndetically, by means of subordinating conjunctions or connectives.
Asyndetically, without a conjunction or connective.
A subordinate clause may follow, precede, or interrupt the principal clause. A complex sentence may contain two or more homogeneous clauses coordinated with each other. A subordinate clause may be subordinated to the principal clause or to another subordinate clause. Accordingly we distinguish subordinate clauses of the first, second, third, etc. degree of subordination. According to their grammatical function subordinate clauses are divided into subject, predicative, attributive, object, and adverbial clauses.
As a rule, object clauses are not separated by a comma from the principal clause. A comma may or may not be used if the object clause precedes the principal clause.
Read and translate the following sentences. Find principal clauses and subordinate clauses. I wish you had come earlier.
He never asked why Erik was giving up academic work.
It was unfortunate that the patient was brought in during the evening.
What is done cannot be undone.
The thing to be settled on now is whether anything can be done to save him.
He felt as if death had laid a hand on him.
I don’t know what you are talking about.
Time will show whether I am right or wrong.
He was recovering better than he had expected.
He is so weak physically that he can hardly move.
Jack’s broken wrist healed sooner than he expected.
He was white and jaded as if he had not slept for many nights.
Read and discuss some facts about HIV.
Nearly 33.4 million people worldwide, including 2.1 million children, are living with HIV/AIDS, according to UNAIDS. Each year, there will be approximately 2 million new cases. In North America alone, there are 1.4 million existing cases. In the United States, HIV/AIDS is the sixth-leading cause of death among 25- to 44-year-olds, topped by accidental injury, malignancy, suicide, heart disease and homicide. Although great strides have been made in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, a cure remains elusive.