Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С



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Дата конвертації24.01.2021
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Causative-consecutive coordination expressed by the conjunctions for, so and the conjunctive adverbs therefore, accordingly, consequently, hence. For introduces coordinate clauses explaining the preceding statement. Therefore, so, consequently, hence, accordingly introduce coordinate clauses denoting cause, consequence and result.




  1. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Point out the types of coordination.

  1. Organisms cannot be completely sealed against their environments; other systems act to protect body openings such as the lungs, intestines, and the genitourinary tract.

  2. Vaginal secretions serve as a chemical barrier following menarche, when they become slightly acidic, while semen contains defenses and zinc to kill pathogens.

  3. The adaptive immune system evolved in early vertebrates and allows for a stronger immune response as well as immunological memory, therefore each pathogen is “remembered” by a signature antigen.

  4. It is likely that a multicomponent, adaptive immune system arose with the first vertebrates, as invertebrates do not generate lymphocytes or an antibody-based humoral response.

  5. Unlike animals, plants lack phagocytic cells, but many plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals that are sent through a plant.

  6. When a part of a plant becomes infected, the plant produces a localized hypersensitive response, whereby cells at the site of infection undergo rapid apoptosis to prevent the spread of the disease to other parts of the plant.

  7. Glucocorticoids are the most powerful of these drugs; however, these drugs can have many undesirable side effects, such as central obesity, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, and their use must be tightly controlled.

  8. Passive immunity is acquired through transfer of antibodies or activated T cells from an immune host, and is short lived – usually lasting only a few months – whereas active immunity is induced in the host itself by antigen, and lasts much longer, sometimes life-long.

  9. An immunogen is able to induce an immune response, whereas an antigen is able to combine with the products of an immune response once they are made.

  10. Naturally acquired immunity occurs through contact with a disease causing agent, when the contact was not deliberate, whereas artificially acquired immunity develops only through deliberate actions such as vaccination.

  11. The flushing action of tears and urine also mechanically expels pathogens, while mucus secreted by the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract serves to trap and entangle microorganisms.

  12. The prehistoric view of disease was that it was caused by supernatural forces, and that illness was a form of theurgic punishment for “bad deeds” or “evil thoughts” visited upon the soul by the gods or by one’s enemies.

  13. Passive immunity provides immediate protection, but the body does not develop memory, therefore the patient is at risk of being infected by the same pathogen later.

  14. The innate system is present from birth and protects an individual from pathogens regardless of experiences, whereas adaptive immunity arises only after an infection or immunization and hence is “acquired” during life.




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