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Write the opposites of the following words by writing the negative prefixes



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Write the opposites of the following words by writing the negative prefixes.

____function, ____specific, _____sufficient, ____known, _____usually, ____responsiveness, ______sensitive, _____active, _____frequent, ______likely, _____tension.


  1. Find synonyms in the text to the following words.

to hinder




result




substitute




to find out




misuse




to act on




subsequent




blockage




to build up




deficiency




fatigue




bleeding




common




to rupture




manifestation




breathlessness




shunting




to postpone




to back




to decrease







  1. Choose the answer that better completes the sentences.

  1. The word “cirrhosis” derives from Greek word meaning yellowish, tawny (the orange-yellow colour of the _______ liver) + Eng. med. suff. -osis.

A diseased B dismissed C distinguished D deviated

  1. The liver plays a _________ role in synthesis of proteins.

A insignificant B vital C disabled D decomposing

  1. Cirrhosis is often preceded by hepatitis and _____ liver (steatosis), independent of the cause.

A enlarged B fatty C delicate D thin

  1. The pathological hallmark of cirrhosis is the development of ________ tissue that replaces normal parenchyma.

A scar B smooth C deficient D connective

  1. Portal hypertension is responsible for most ________ complications of cirrhosis.

A mild B hard C severe D tough

  1. The gold standard for diagnosis of cirrhosis is a liver ______, through a percutaneous, transjugular, laparoscopic, or fine-needle approach.

A transplantation B incision C excision D biopsy

  1. Generally, liver damage from cirrhosis cannot be _________, but treatment could stop or delay further progression and reduce complications.

A followed B injured C reversed D progressed

  1. A healthy diet is _______, as cirrhosis may be an energy-consuming process.

A discouraged B encouraged C forbidden D hindered

  1. Alcoholic cirrhosis caused by alcohol _______ is treated by abstaining from alcohol.

A misuse B eating C excretion D abuse

  1. If complications cannot be controlled or when the liver ceases functioning, liver ________ is necessary.

A transplantation B removal C purification D delete

  1. As cirrhosis of the liver becomes severe, signals are sent to the kidneys ______ salt and water in the body.

A to restrict B to recover C to retain D to reject

  1. The accumulation of fluid (called ________) causes swelling of the abdomen, abdominal discomfort, and increased weight.

A aggravation B pool C ascites D collection


  1. Read and translate pieces of advice on preventing further damage to the liver. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box.




chronic, excretion, consume, side, experience, deterioration, abstinence damage, viral, further, autoimmune, vaccines, trials, survival, immunize




  • _____________ a balanced diet and one multivitamin daily. Patients suffering from primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) with impaired absorption of fat soluble vitamins may need additional vitamins D and K.

  • Avoid drugs (including alcohol) that cause liver ____________. All patients with cirrhosis should avoid alcohol. Most patients with alcohol induced cirrhosis experience an improvement in liver function with ______________ from alcohol. Even patients with _____________ hepatitis B and C can substantially reduce liver damage and slow the progression towards cirrhosis with abstinence from alcohol.

  • Avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, e.g. ibuprofen). Patients with cirrhosis can __________ worsening of liver and kidney function with NSAIDs.

  • Eradicate hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus by using anti-viral medications. Not all patients with cirrhosis due to chronic __________ hepatitis are candidates for drug treatment. Some patients may experience serious ___________ in liver function and/or intolerable _____________ effects during treatment. Thus, decisions to treat viral hepatitis have to be individualized, after consulting with doctors experienced in treating liver diseases (hepatologists).

  • Remove blood from patients with haemochromatosis to reduce the levels of iron and prevent ___________ damage to the liver. In Wilson’s disease, medications can be used to increase the __________ of copper in the urine to reduce the levels of copper in the body and prevent further damage to the liver.

  • Suppress the immune system with drugs such as prednisone and azathioprine (Imuran) to decrease inflammation of the liver in __________ hepatitis.

  • Treat patients with PBC with a bile acid preparation, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), also called ursodiol (Actigall). Results of an analysis that combined the results from several clinical ___________ showed that UDCA increased ____________ among PBC patients during 4 years of therapy. The development of portal hypertension also was reduced by the UDCA.

  • __________ patients with cirrhosis against infection with hepatitis A and B to prevent a serious deterioration in liver function. There are currently no ___________ available for immunizing against hepatitis C.






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