Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С


Read and translate the text. Answer the following questions



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Read and translate the text. Answer the following questions.

  1. What are the most common diseases of the liver?

  2. What are the classic symptoms of liver damage?

  3. How is the diagnosis of liver function made?

  4. How does the liver regenerate itself?


Diseases of the Liver

The liver supports almost every organ in the body and is vital for survival. Because of its strategic location and multidimensional functions, the liver is also prone to many diseases. The most common include: infections such as hepatitis A, B, C, E, alcohol damage, fatty liver, cirrhosis, cancer, drug damage. Many diseases of the liver are accompanied by jaundice caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the system. The bilirubin results from the breakup of the haemoglobin of dead red blood cells; normally, the liver removes bilirubin from the blood and excretes it through bile. Diseases that interfere with liver function will lead to derangement of these processes. However, the liver has a great capacity to regenerate and has a large reserve capacity. In most cases, the liver only produces symptoms after extensive damage. Liver diseases may be diagnosed by liver function tests, for example, by production of acute phase proteins.

The classic symptoms of liver damage include the following:


  • Pale stools occur when stercobilin, a brown pigment, is absent from the stool. Stercobilin is derived from bilirubin metabolites produced in the liver.



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