Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни ісаєва О. С


Match the words in each of these sets with their definitions



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Match the words in each of these sets with their definitions.




hepatomegaly

pertaining to the intestine and liver

hepatectomy

enlargement of the liver

hepatoma

tumour of the liver

enterohepatic

excision of the liver

hepatotropic

acting on the liver




cholaemia

stoppage of bile excretion

icterus

presence of bile in the blood

cholestasis

vomiting

cholangiography

X-ray study of the bile ducts

emesis

jaundice




choledochal

condition of having gallstones

cholemesis

pertaining to the common bile duct

cholelithiasis

vomiting of bile

cholangiectasis

crushing of a biliary calculus

cholelithotripsy

dilation of bile ducts




  1. Fill in the gaps with the words from the table. Read and translate the text.




salts, faeces, fat-soluble, gall, byproduct, inorganic, depression, derivation, prevalent, lipids, bactericides, duodenum, acid, fluid, food, haemoglobin

Bile or __________ is a bitter-tasting, dark green to yellowish brown _________, produced by the liver of most vertebrates that aids the process of digestion of ___________ in the small intestine. In many species, bile is stored in the gallbladder and upon eating is discharged into the __________. Bile is a composition of the following materials: water (85%), bile _______ (10%), mucus and pigments (3%), fats (1%), ______salts (0.7%) and cholesterol (0.3%).

In the medical theories ___________ in the West from Classical Antiquity up to the Middle Ages, the body’s health depended on the equilibrium between four “humours” or vital fluids: blood, phlegm, “yellow bile” (or choler) and “black bile”. Excesses of the last two humours were thought to produce aggression and ___________, respectively; and the Greek names for them gave rise to the English words “cholera” and “melancholia”. Those same theories explain the __________ of the English word “bilious” from “bile”, and the meaning of “gall” in English as “exasperation” or “impudence”.

Bile acts to some extent as a surfactant, helping to emulsify the fats in the ________. Without bile salts, most of the lipids in the food would be passed out in ___________, undigested.

Since bile increases the absorption of fats, it is an important part of the absorption of the _________ substances, such as the vitamins D, E, K and A.

Besides its digestive function, bile serves also as the route of excretion for bilirubin, a __________ of red blood cells recycled by the liver. Bilirubin derives from _________ by glucuronidation.



The alkaline bile also has the function of neutralizing any excess stomach __________ before it enters the ileum, the final section of the small intestine. Bile salts also act as ___________, destroying many of the microbes that may be present in the food.




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