A 27-year-old man is on a scuba diving trip to the Caribbean and descends to a depth of 50 m in the Blue Hole off the coast of Belize. After 30 minutes, he has a malfunction in his equipment and quickly returns to the boat on the surface. He soon experiences difficulty breathing, with dyspnea and substernal chest pain, followed by a severe headache and vertigo. About 1 hour later, he develops severe, painful myalgia and arthralgia. These symptoms abate within 24 hours. Which of the following mechanisms is the most likely cause of these symptoms?
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Tissue nitrogen emboli
Fat globules in arterioles
An 18-year old diver descends to a depth of 50 m in the Black See. After 50 minutes, he has a malfunction in his equipment and quickly returns to the boat on the surface. About 1 hour later, he develops severe, painful myalgia, pain in his joints and skin itching. What are these symptoms referred to?
High altitude diseases
During flight by a balloon its two passengers develop headache, pain in ears, nasal hemorrhage. What is the primary pathogenesis of these symptoms?
Decrease in a partial pressure of oxygen
Toxic influence of gases dissolved in the blood
At the altitude of 5000 m above sea level a 20-year old man climbing the mountain develops dyspnea, palpitation, dizziness and headache. Which of the following mechanisms can cause these symptoms?
A decrease in pO2 in inhaled air
Insufficient ventilation of the lungs
A decrease in air temperature
A decrease in atmospheric pressure
Depressurization of a pilot cabin happens during flaying at the altitude of 14000 m. Which of the following types of embolism develops in the pilot due to the accident?
At an altitude of 5000 m dyspnea, palpitation, splitting headache, dizziness occur in most people climbing the mountains. Which of the following mechanisms underlines these symptoms?
Impaired oxygen-carry capacity of the blood
At an altitude of 4500 m 46-year old woman climbing the mountain develops syncope. Her blood test shows hypocapnia. Which of the following mechanisms underlines such changes in her blood?