База тестів крок-1 з патофізіології (пмк-1)



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Test 40

A 27-year-old man is on a scuba diving trip to the Caribbean and descends to a depth of 50 m in the Blue Hole off the coast of Belize. After 30 minutes, he has a malfunction in his equipment and quickly returns to the boat on the surface. He soon experiences difficulty breathing, with dyspnea and substernal chest pain, followed by a severe headache and vertigo. About 1 hour later, he develops severe, painful myalgia and arthralgia. These symptoms abate within 24 hours. Which of the following mechanisms is the most likely cause of these symptoms?



  1. Disseminated intravascular coagulation

  2. Systemic vasodilation

  3. Venous thrombosis

  4. Tissue nitrogen emboli

  5. Fat globules in arterioles



Test 41

An 18-year old diver descends to a depth of 50 m in the Black See. After 50 minutes, he has a malfunction in his equipment and quickly returns to the boat on the surface. About 1 hour later, he develops severe, painful myalgia, pain in his joints and skin itching. What are these symptoms referred to?



  1. Oxygen toxicity

  2. High altitude diseases

  3. Nitrogen narcosis

  4. Decompression syndrome

  5. Compensatory reaction


Test 42

During flight by a balloon its two passengers develop headache, pain in ears, nasal hemorrhage. What is the primary pathogenesis of these symptoms?



  1. Decompression

  2. Decrease in a partial pressure of oxygen

  3. Hypoxia

  4. Gas embolism

  5. Toxic influence of gases dissolved in the blood


Test 43

At the altitude of 5000 m above sea level a 20-year old man climbing the mountain develops dyspnea, palpitation, dizziness and headache. Which of the following mechanisms can cause these symptoms?



  1. A decrease in pO2 in inhaled air

  2. Insufficient ventilation of the lungs

  3. Gas embolism

  4. A decrease in air temperature

  5. A decrease in atmospheric pressure


Test 44

Depressurization of a pilot cabin happens during flaying at the altitude of 14000 m. Which of the following types of embolism develops in the pilot due to the accident?



  1. Thromboembolism

  2. Fat embolism

  3. Gas embolism

  4. Retrograde

  5. Paradoxical


Test 45

At an altitude of 5000 m dyspnea, palpitation, splitting headache, dizziness occur in most people climbing the mountains. Which of the following mechanisms underlines these symptoms?



  1. Hypoxemia

  2. Hypokaliemia

  3. Impaired oxygen-carry capacity of the blood

  4. Hypoventilation

  5. Respiratory alkalosis


Test 46

At an altitude of 4500 m 46-year old woman climbing the mountain develops syncope. Her blood test shows hypocapnia. Which of the following mechanisms underlines such changes in her blood?



  1. Binding of CO2 by plasma proteins

  2. Neutralization of CO2 by bicarbonates

  3. Adsorption of CO2 on red blood cells

  4. Hyperventilation

  5. Impaired metabolism





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