База тестів крок-1 з патофізіології (пмк-1)


A. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction B



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Дата конвертації25.01.2021
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A. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction

B. Hyperthyroidism

C. Hypothyroidism

D. Gonadal hypofunction

E. Hyperfunction of the insular apparatus
20. On examination the patient is found to have low production of adrenocorticotropic hormone. How would this affect production of the other hormones?

A. Decrease adrenocorticotropic hormones synthesis

B. Decrease hormone synthesis in the adrenal medulla

C. Decrease insulin synthesis

D. Increase sex hormones synthesis

E. Increase thyroid hormones synthesis

Pathophysiology of the nervous system

  1. A patient complains that at the bare mention of the tragic events that once occurred in his life he experiences tachycardia, dyspnea and an abrupt rise in blood pressure. What structures of the CNS are responsible for these cardiorespiratory reactions in this patient?

    1. Cerebral cortex

    2. Cerebellum

    3. Lateral hypothalamic nuclei

    4. Specific thalamic nuclei

    5. Quadrigemina of mesencephalon




  1. As a result of a continuous chronic encephalopathy, a patient has developed spontaneous motions and a disorder of torso muscle tone. These are the symptoms of the disorder of the following conduction tract:

    1. Tractus rubrospinalis

    2. Tractus corticospinalis

    3. Tractus corticonuclearis

    4. Tractus spinothalamicus

    5. Tractus tectospinalis




  1. A patient complaining of pain in the left shoulder-blade region has been diagnosed with miocardial infarction. What kind of pain does the patient have?

    1. Radiating

    2. Visceral

    3. Phantom

    4. Protopathic

    5. Epicritic




  1. After the traumatic tooth extraction a patient is complaining of acute, dull, poorly-localized pain in gingiva, body temperature rise up to 37, 5oC. The patient has been diagnosed with alveolitis. Specify the kind of pain in this patient:

    1. Protopathic

    2. Epicritic

    3. Visceral

    4. Heterotopic

    5. Phantom




  1. A patient got a gunshot wound of hip which damaged the sciatic nerve. Any impact on the affected limb causes severe, excruciating pain. What mechanism of pain is most likely in this case?

    1. Causalgic

    2. Reflex

    3. Phantom

    4. Endorphin hypofunction

    5. Enkephalin hypofunction




  1. An animal has an increased tonus of extensor muscles. This is the result of enhanced information transmission to the motoneurons of the spinal cord through the following descending pathways:

    1. Vestibulospinal

    2. Medial corticospinal

    3. Reticulospinal

    4. Rubrospinal

    5. Lateral corticospinal




  1. During an animal experiment, surgical damage of certain brain structures has caused deep prolonged sleep. What structure is most likely to cause such condition, if damaged?

    1. Reticular formation

    2. Basal ganglion

    3. Red nuclei

    4. Hippocampus

    5. Cerebral cortex




  1. In a cat with decerebrate rigidity themuscle tone is to be decreased. This can be achieved by:

    1. Destruction of the vestibular nuclei of Deiters

    2. Stimulation of the otolithic vestibular receptors

    3. Stimulation of the vestibular nuclei of Deiters

    4. Stimulation of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    5. Stimulation of the ampullar vestibular receptors




  1. As a result of an injury, the integrity of the anterior spinal cord root was broken. Specify the neurons and their processes that had been damaged:

    1. Axons of motor neurons

    2. Motor neuron dendrites

    3. Axons of sensory neurons

    4. Dendrites of sensory neurons

    5. Dendrites of association neurons




  1. A patient got an injury of spinal marrow in a road accident that caused loss of tactile sensation, posture sense, vibration sense. What conduction tracts are damaged?

    1. Fascicle of Goll and cuneate fascicle

    2. Anterior spinocerebellar tract

    3. Rubrospinal tract

    4. Reticulospinal tract

    5. Tectospinal tract




  1. A patient presents with the following motor activity disturbances: tremor, ataxia and asynergia movements, dysarthria. The disturbances are most likely to be localized in:

    1. Cerebellum

    2. Basal ganglions

    3. Limbic system

    4. Brainstem

    5. Medulla oblongata




  1. A male with a lesion of one of the CNS parts has asthenia, muscular dystonia, balance disorder. Which CNS part has been affected?

    1. Cerebellum

    2. Black substance

    3. Reticular formation

    4. Red nuclei

    5. Vestibular nuclei

  2. Vegetative abnormalities in the sleep, heat regulation, all kinds of metabolism, diabetes insipidus are developing in the patient due to grouth of the tumour in the III ventricle of brain. Irritation of the nucleus of what part of the brain can cause these symptoms?

    1. Hypothalamus

    2. Cerebral peduncles (cruces cerebri)

    3. Mesencephalic tegmentum

    4. Pons cerebelli

    5. Medulla




  1. A 5-month-old boy was hospitalized for tonic convulsions. He has a lifetime history of this disease. Examination revealed coarse hair, thinned and fragile nails, pale and dry skin. In blood: calcium - 1,5 millimole/l, phosphor - 1,9 millimole/l. These changes are associated with:

    1. Hypoparathyroidism

    2. Hyperparathyroidism

    3. Hyperaldosteronism

    4. Hypoaldosteronism

    5. Hypothyroidism

  2. A 49-year old female patient has limitation of left limbs arbitrary movements.

Muscular tonus of left hand and leg is overstrained and spasmodic, local tendon reflexes are strong, pathological reflexes are presented. What is the most likely development mechanism of hypertension and hyperreflexia?

    1. Reduction of descending inhibitory

    2. Motoneuron activation induced by stroke

    3. Activation of excitatory influence from the focus of stroke

    4. Activation of synaptic transmission

    5. Inhibition of cerebral cortex motoneurons




  1. A patient underwent an extraction of a part of a CNS structures by medical indications. As a result of the extraction the patient developed atony, astasia, intention tremor, ataxy and adiadochokinesis. Which part of CNS structure had been extracted?

    1. Cerebellum

    2. Amygdaloid corpus

    3. Hippocamp

    4. Basal ganglions

    5. Limbic system




  1. A patient with hypertension has developed headache, tinnitus, vomiting, high BP up to 220/160 mm Hg. On examination: facial asymmetry on the right, volitional mobility is absent, increased tendon reflexes and muscle tone of extremities on the right. What motor disorder of nervous system occurred in this case?



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