База тестів крок-1 з патофізіології (пмк-1)



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A. Gastrin

B. Histamine

C. Secretin

D. Cholecystokinin

E. Neurotensin

20. A patient presents with steatorrhea. This disorder can be linked to disturbed supply of the intestine with the following substances:



A. Bile acids

B. Carbohydrates

C. Tripsin

D. Chymotrypsin

E. Amylase

Pathophysiology of the kidneys

  1. Urine analysis has shown high levels of protein and erythrocytes in urine. This can be caused by the following:

    1. Renal filter permeability

    2. Effective filter pressure

    3. Hydrostatic blood pressure in glomerular capillaries

    4. Hydrostatic primary urine pressure in capsule

    5. Oncotic pressure of blood plasma

  2. Diabetic nephropathy with uremia has developed in a patient with pancreatic diabetes. The velocity of glomerular filtration is 9 ml/min. What mechanism of a decrease in glomerular filtration velocity and chronic renal failure development is most likely in the case of this patient?

    1. Reduction of active nephron mass

    2. Decrease in systemic arterial pressure

    3. Obstruction of nephron tubules with hyaline casts

    4. Tissue acidosis

    5. Arteriolar spasm



  1. According to the results of glucose tolerance test, the patient has no disorder of carbohydrate tolerance. Despite that, glucose is detected in the patients’ urine (5 mmol/l). The patient has been diagnosed with renal diabetes. What renal changes cause glucosuria in this case?

    1. Decreased activity of glucose reabsorption enzymes

    2. Increased activity of glucose reabsorption enzymes

    3. Exceeded glucose reabsorption threshold

    4. Increased glucose secretion

    5. Increased glucose filtration



  1. Due to the use of poor quality measles vaccine for preventive vaccination, a 1-year-old child has developed an autoimmune renal injury. The urine was found to contain macromolecular proteins. What process of urine formation has been disturbed?

    1. Filtration

    2. Reabsorption

    3. Secretion

    4. Reabsorption and secretion

    5. Secretion and filtration



  1. A child has an acute renal failure. What biochemical factor found in saliva can confirm this diagnosis?

    1. Increase in urea concentration

    2. Increase in glucose concentration

    3. Decrease in glucose concentration

    4. Increase in concentration of higher fatty acids

    5. Decrease in nucleic acid concentration



  1. A patient with a history of chronic glomerulonephritis presents with azotemia, oliguria, hypo- and isosthenuria, proteinuria. What is the leading factor in the pathogenesis of these symptoms development under chronic renal failure?

    1. Mass decrease of active nephrons

    2. Intensification of glomerular filtration

    3. Tubular hyposecretion

    4. Disturbed permeability of glomerular membranes

    5. Intensification of sodium reabsorption



  1. A histological specimen of kidney shows a structure consisting of a glomerulus of fenestrated capillaries and a bilayer epithelial capsule. Specify this structure:

    1. Renal corpuscle

    2. Proximal tubule

    3. Distal tubule

    4. Henle’s loop

    5. Receiving tube



  1. A 4 year old child with hereditary renal lesion has signs of rickets, vitamin D concentration in blood is normal. What is the most probable cause of rickets development?

    1. Impaired synthesis of calcitriol

    2. Increased excretion of calcium

    3. Hyperfunction of parathyroid glands

    4. Hypofunction of parathyroid glands

    5. Lack of calcium in food



  1. 14 days after quinsy a 15-year-old child presented with morning facial swelling, high blood pressure, "meat slops"urine. Immunohistological study of a renal biopsy sample revealed deposition of immune complexes on the basement membranes of the capillaries and in the glomerular mesangium. What disease developed in the patient?

    1. Acute glomerulonephritis

    2. Acute interstitial nephritis

    3. Lipoid nephrosis

    4. Acute pyelonephritis

    5. Necrotizing nephrosis



  1. A patient with massive burns developed acute renal insufficiency characterized by a significant and rapid deceleration of glomerular filtration.What is the mechanism of its

development?

    1. Reduction of renal blood flow

    2. Damage of glomerular filter

    3. Reduction of functioning nephron number



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