20. A patient presents with steatorrhea. This disorder can be linked to disturbed supply of the intestine with the following substances:
A. Bile acids
Pathophysiology of the kidneys Urine analysis has shown high levels of protein and erythrocytes in urine. This can be caused by the following:
Renal filter permeability
Effective filter pressure
Hydrostatic blood pressure in glomerular capillaries
Hydrostatic primary urine pressure in capsule
Oncotic pressure of blood plasma
Diabetic nephropathy with uremia has developed in a patient with pancreatic diabetes. The velocity of glomerular filtration is 9 ml/min. What mechanism of a decrease in glomerular filtration velocity and chronic renal failure development is most likely in the case of this patient?
Reduction of active nephron mass
Decrease in systemic arterial pressure
Obstruction of nephron tubules with hyaline casts
According to the results of glucose tolerance test, the patient has no disorder of carbohydrate tolerance. Despite that, glucose is detected in the patients’ urine (5 mmol/l). The patient has been diagnosed with renal diabetes. What renal changes cause glucosuria in this case?
Decreased activity of glucose reabsorption enzymes
Increased activity of glucose reabsorption enzymes
Exceeded glucose reabsorption threshold
Increased glucose secretion
Increased glucose filtration
Due to the use of poor quality measles vaccine for preventive vaccination, a 1-year-old child has developed an autoimmune renal injury. The urine was found to contain macromolecular proteins. What process of urine formation has been disturbed?
Reabsorption and secretion
Secretion and filtration
A child has an acute renal failure. What biochemical factor found in saliva can confirm this diagnosis?
Increase in urea concentration
A patient with a history of chronic glomerulonephritis presents with azotemia, oliguria, hypo- and isosthenuria, proteinuria. What is the leading factor in the pathogenesis of these symptoms development under chronic renal failure?
Mass decrease of active nephrons
Intensification of glomerular filtration
Disturbed permeability of glomerular membranes
Intensification of sodium reabsorption
A histological specimen of kidney shows a structure consisting of a glomerulus of fenestrated capillaries and a bilayer epithelial capsule. Specify this structure:
A 4 year old child with hereditary renal lesion has signs of rickets, vitamin D concentration in blood is normal. What is the most probable cause of rickets development?
Impaired synthesis of calcitriol
Increased excretion of calcium
Hyperfunction of parathyroid glands
Hypofunction of parathyroid glands
Lack of calcium in food
14 days after quinsy a 15-year-old child presented with morning facial swelling, high blood pressure, "meat slops"urine. Immunohistological study of a renal biopsy sample revealed deposition of immune complexes on the basement membranes of the capillaries and in the glomerular mesangium. What disease developed in the patient?
Acute interstitial nephritis
A patient with massive burns developed acute renal insufficiency characterized by a significant and rapid deceleration of glomerular filtration.What is the mechanism of its