База тестів крок-1 з патофізіології (пмк-1)


A. Alveolar tendency to recede B



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A. Alveolar tendency to recede

B. Decreased airways resistance

C. Decresed work of expiratory muscles

D. Increased pulmonary ventilation

E. Hyperoxemia

Pathophysiology of the liver and digestive system.

  1. A patient has a critical impairment of protein, fat and hydrocarbon digestion.

Most likely it has been caused by low secretion of the following digestive juice:

    1. Pancreatic juice

    2. Saliva

    3. Gastric juice

    4. Bile

    5. Intestinal juice

  1. A 42 year old patient complains of pain in the epigastral area, vomiting; vomit masses have the colour of "coffee-grounds", the patient has also melena. Anamnesis records gastric ulcer. Blood formula: erythrocytes - 2, 8 · 1012/l, leukocytes - 8 · 109/l, Hb- 90 g/l. What complication is it?

    1. Haemorrhage

    2. Penetration

    3. Perforation

    4. Canceration

    5. Pyloric stenosis

  2. A patient takes cholagogues. What other process besides biliary excretion will be stimulated?

    1. Intestinal motility

    2. Gastric juice secretion

    3. Pancreatic juice secretion

    4. Gastric motor activity

    5. Water absorption




  1. A 49-year-old male patient with acute pancreatitis was likely to develop pancreatic necrosis, while active pancreatic proteases were absorbed into the blood stream and tissue proteins broke up. What protective factors of the body can inhibit these processes?

    1. α2-macroglobulin, α1-antitrypsin

    2. Immunoglobulin

    3. Cryoglobulin, interferon

    4. Ceruloplasmin, transferrin

    5. Hemoplexin, haptoglobin

  2. A 30 year old woman has subnormalconcentration of enzymes in the pancreatic juice. This might be caused by the hyposecretion of the following gastrointestinal hormone:

    1. Cholecystokinin-pancreozymin

    2. Somatostatin

    3. Secretin

    4. Gastro-inhibiting peptide

    5. Vaso-intestinal peptide




  1. A 60 year old patient was found to have a dysfunction of main digestive enzyme of saliva. This causes the disturbance of primary hydrolysis of:

    1. Carbohydrates

    2. Fats

    3. Proteins

    4. Cellulose

    5. Lactose

  2. A 30-year-old male patient with acute pancreatitis has been found to have a disorder of cavitary protein digestion. The reason for such condition can be the hyposynthesis and hyposecretion of the following enzyme:

    1. Tripsin

    2. Pepsin

    3. Lipase

    4. Dipeptidase

    5. Amylase




  1. A specimen of a parenchymal organ shows poorly delineated hexagonal lobules surrounding a central vein, and the interlobular connective tissue contains embedded triads (an artery, a vein and an excretory duct). What organ is it?

    1. Liver

    2. Pancreas

    3. Thymus

    4. Spleen

    5. Thyroid




  1. A 53-year-old male patient complains of acute pain in the right hypochondrium. Objective examination revealed scleral icterus. Laboratory tests revealed increased ALT activity, and stercobilin was not detected in the stool. What disease is characterized by these symptoms?

    1. Cholelithiasis

    2. Hemolytic jaundice

    3. Hepatitis

    4. Chronic colitis

    5. Chronic gastritis




  1. A patient has normally coloured stool including a large amount of free fatty acids.

The reason for this is a disturbance of the following process:

    1. Fat absorption

    2. Fat hydrolysis

    3. Biliary excretion

    4. Choleresis

    5. Lipase secretion

  1. A patient has been admitted to the contagious isolation ward with signs of jaundice caused by hepatitis virus. Which of the symptoms given below is strictly specific for hepatocellular jaundice?

    1. Increase of ALT, AST level

    2. Hyperbilirubinemia

    3. Bilirubinuria

    4. Cholemia

    5. Urobilinuria




  1. An infectious disease unit admitted a patient with signs of jaundice caused by

hepatitis virus. Select an indicator that is specific only for parenchymatous jaundice:

    1. Increase in ALT and AST rate

    2. Hyperbilirubinemia

    3. Bilirubinuria

    4. Cholaemia

    5. Urobilinuria

  1. A tooth extraction in a patient with chronic persistent hepatitis was complicated with prolonged hemorrhage. What is the reason for the haemorrhagic syndrome?

    1. Decrease in thrombin production

    2. Increase in thromboplastin production

    3. Decrease in fibrin production

    4. Increase in fibrinogen synthesis

    5. Fibrinolysis intensification




  1. After severe viral hepatitis a 4 year-old boy presents with vommiting, occasional loss of consciousness, convulsions. Blood test revealed hyperammoniemia. Such condition is caused by a disorder of the following biochemical hepatic process:

    1. Disorder of ammonia neutralization

    2. Disorder of biogenic amines neutralization

    3. Protein synthesis inhibition

    4. Activation of amino acid decarboxylation

    5. Inhibition of transamination enzymes




  1. Blood analysis of a patient with jaundice reveals conjugated bilirubinemia, increased concentration of bile acids. There is no stercobilinogen in urine.

What type of jaundice is it?

    1. Obstructive jaundice

    2. Hepatocellular jaundice

    3. Parenchymatous jaundice

    4. Hemolytic jaundice

    5. Cythemolytic jaundice




  1. A patient with jaundice has high total bilirubin that is mainly indirect (unconjugated), high concentration of stercobilin in the stool and urine. The level of direct (conjugated) bilirubin in the blood plasma is normal. What kind of jaundice can you think of?

    1. Hemolytic

    2. Parenchymal (hepatic)

    3. Mechanical

    4. Neonatal jaundice

    5. Gilbert’s disease




  1. A patient presents with icteritiousness of skin, scleras and mucous membranes. Blood plasma the total bilirubin is increased, stercobilin is increased in feces, urobilin is increased in urine. What type of jaundice is it?

    1. Haemolytic

    2. Gilbert’s disease

    3. Parenchymatous

    4. Obturational

    5. Cholestatic




  1. Enzymatic jaundices are accompanied by abnormal activity of UDPglucuronyl transferase. What compound is accumulated in blood serum in case of these pathologies?

    1. Unconjugated bilirubin

    2. Conjugated bilrubin

    3. Dehydrobilirubin

    4. Hydrobilirubin

    5. Choleglobin

  2. A 35-year-old man with peptic ulcer disease has undergone antrectomy. After the surgery secretion of the following gastrointestinal hormone will be disrupted the most:



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