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Pathophysiology of the respiratory system



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Pathophysiology of the respiratory system.

  1. A 23-year-old patient has been admitted to a hospital with a craniocerebral injury. The patient is in a grave condition.Respiration is characterized by prolonged convulsive inspiration followed by a short expiration. What kind of respiration is it typical for?

    1. Apneustic

    2. Gasping breath

    3. Kussmaul’s

    4. Cheyne-Stokes

    5. Biot’s




  1. A patient has increased thickness of alveolar-capillary membrane caused by a pathologic process. The direct consequence will be reduction of the following value:

    1. Diffusing lung capacity

    2. Oxygen capacity of blood

    3. Respiratory minute volume

    4. Alveolar ventilation of lungs

    5. Expiratory reserve volume



  1. A patient has a traumatic injury of sternocleidomastoid muscle. This has resulted in a decrease in the following value:

    1. Inspiratory reserve volume

    2. Expiratory reserve volume

    3. Respiratory volume

    4. Residual volume

    5. Functional residual lung capacity



  1. When studying the signs of pulmonary ventilation, reduction of forced expiratory volume has been detected.What is the likely cause of this phenomenon?

    1. Obstructive pulmonary disease

    2. Increase of respiratory volume

    3. Increase of inspiratory reserve volume

    4. Increase of pulmonary residual volume

    5. Increase of functional residual lung capacity




  1. A patient with bronchial asthma has developed acute respiratory failure. What kind of respiratory failure occurs in this case?

    1. Obstructive disturbance of alveolar ventilation

    2. Restrictive ventilatory defect

    3. Perfusion

    4. Diffusion

    5. Dysregulation of alveolar ventilation




  1. Analysis of the experimental spirogram of a 55-year-old person revealed a decrease in tidal volume and respiratory amplitude compared to the situation of ten years ago. The change in these indicators is caused by:

    1. Decreased force of respiratory muscle contraction

    2. Gas composition of the air

    3. Physical build of a person

    4. Height of a person

    5. Body mass of a person




  1. A female patient, having visited the factory premises with lots of dust in the air for the first time, has got cough and burning pain in the throat. What respiratory receptors, when irritated, cause this kind of reaction?

    1. Irritant receptors

    2. Juxtacapillary (J) receptors

    3. Stretch receptors of lungs

    4. Proprioceptors of respiratory muscles

    5. Thermoreceptors




  1. A patient under test was subjected to a moderate physical stress. His minute blood volume amounted 10 l/min. What blood volume was pumped through his lung vessels every minute?

    1. 10 l/min

    2. 5 l/min

    3. 4 l/min

    4. 6 l/min

    5. 7 l/min




  1. To assess the effectiveness of breathing in patients, the indicator of functional residual capacity is used. It includes the following volumes:

    1. Expiratory reserve volume and residual volume

    2. Inspiratory reserve volume and residual volume

    3. Inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, residual volume

    4. Expiratory reserve volume and tidal volume

    5. Inspiratory reserve volume and tidal volume




  1. Lung ventilation in a person is increased as a result of physical activity.

Which of the following indices of the external respiration is much higher than

in a state of rest?



    1. Respiratory volume

    2. Vital capacity of lungs

    3. Inspiratory reserve volume

    4. Expiratory reserve volume

    5. Total lung capacity




  1. A patient demonstrates sharp decrease of pulmonary surfactant activity. This condition can result in:



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