Cardiac insufficiency. A patient suffering from stenocardia was taking nitroglycerine which caused restoration of blood supply of myocardium and relieved pain in the cardiac area. What intracellular mechanism provides restoration of energy supply of insulted cells?
Intensification of ATP resynthesis
Reduction of ATP resynthesis
Increased permeability of membranes
Intensification of oxygen transporting into the cell
Intensification of RNA generation
Experimental stimulation of the sympathetic nerve branches that innervate the heart caused an increase in force of heart contractions because the membrane of typical cardiomyocytes permitted an increase in:
Calcium ion entry
Calcium ion exit
Potassium ion exit
Potassium ion entry
Calcium and potassium ion exit
For biochemical diagnostics of myocardial infarction it is necessary to measure activity of a number of enzymes and their isoenzymes. What enzymatic test is considered to be the best to prove or disprove the diagnosis of infarction in the early period after the chest pain is detected?
Creatine kinase isoenzyme CK-MB
Creatine kinase isoenzyme CK-MM
LDH1 lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme
LDH2 lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme
Aspartate aminotransferase cytoplasmic isoenzyme
A 50 year old patient suffers from essential hypertension. After a physical stress he experienced muscle weakness, breathlessness, cyanosis of lips, skin and face. Respiration was accompanied by distinctly heard bubbling rales. What mechanism underlies the development of this syndrome?
Acute left-ventricular failure
Chronic right-ventricular failure
Chronic left-ventricular failure
After a serious psychoemotional stress a 48 year old patient suddenly developed acute heart ache irradiating to the left arm. Nitroglycerine relieved pain after 10minutes. What is the leading pathogenetic mechanism of this process development?
Spasm of coronary arteries
Dilatation of peripheral vessels
Obstruction of coronary vessels
Compression of coronary vessels
Increase in myocardial oxygen consumption
The patient with acute myocardial infarction was given intravenously different solutions during 8 hours with medical dropper 1500 ml and oxygen intranasally. He died because of pulmonary edema. What caused the pulmonary edema?
Volume overload of the left ventricular
Decreased oncotic pressure due to hemodilution
Inhalation of the oxygen
A 35-year-old male developed acute heart failure while running for a long time.
What changes in the ionic composition can be observed in the cardiac muscle?
Accumulation of Na+ and Ca2+ ions in the myocardium cells
Accumulation of K+ and Mg2+ ions in the myocardium cells
Reduction of Na+ and Ca2+ ions in the myocardium cells
Reduction of K+ and Mg2+ ions in the extracellular space
Reduction of Na+ and Ca2+ ions in the extracellular space
A patient with extensive myocardial infarction has developed heart failure.
What pathogenetic mechanism contributed to the development of heart failure in the patient?
Reduction in the mass of functioning myocardiocytes
Acute cardiac tamponade
Myocardial reperfusion injury
ECG of a 44-year-old patient shows of hypertrophy of both ventricles and the right atrium. The patient was diagnosed with the tricuspid valve insufficiency.
What pathogenetic variant of cardiac dysfunction is usually observed in case of such insufficiency?
Heart overload by volume
Heart overload by resistance
Primary myocardial insufficiency
A patient who had been continuously taking drugs blocking the production of angiotensin II developed bradycardia and arrhythmia. A likely cause of these disorders is:
An isolated cell of human heart automatically generates excitement impulses with frequency of 60 times per minute. This cell was taken from the following heart structure:
Heart rate of a 30-year-old man under emotional stress reached 112 bpm. The reason for the heart rate increase is the altered condition of the following conducting system of heart:
His’ bundle branches
Since a patient has had myocardial infarction, his atria and ventricles contract independently from each other with a frequency of 60-70 and 35-40 per minute. Specify the type of heart block in this case: