База тестів крок-1 з патофізіології (пмк-1)


A. Regenerative left shift B



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A. Regenerative left shift

B. Right shift

C. Hyperregenerative left shift

D. Degenerative left shift

E. Regenerative-degenerative left shift

Pathophysiology of the systemic blood circulation

 Cardiac insufficiency.

  1. A patient suffering from stenocardia was taking nitroglycerine which caused restoration of blood supply of myocardium and relieved pain in the cardiac area. What intracellular mechanism provides restoration of energy supply of insulted cells?

    1. Intensification of ATP resynthesis

    2. Reduction of ATP resynthesis

    3. Increased permeability of membranes

    4. Intensification of oxygen transporting into the cell

    5. Intensification of RNA generation



  1. Experimental stimulation of the sympathetic nerve branches that innervate the heart caused an increase in force of heart contractions because the membrane of typical cardiomyocytes permitted an increase in:

    1. Calcium ion entry

    2. Calcium ion exit

    3. Potassium ion exit

    4. Potassium ion entry

    5. Calcium and potassium ion exit



  1. For biochemical diagnostics of myocardial infarction it is necessary to measure activity of a number of enzymes and their isoenzymes. What enzymatic test is considered to be the best to prove or disprove the diagnosis of infarction in the early period after the chest pain is detected?

    1. Creatine kinase isoenzyme CK-MB

    2. Creatine kinase isoenzyme CK-MM

    3. LDH1 lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme

    4. LDH2 lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme

    5. Aspartate aminotransferase cytoplasmic isoenzyme


  1. A 50 year old patient suffers from essential hypertension. After a physical stress he experienced muscle weakness, breathlessness, cyanosis of lips, skin and face. Respiration was accompanied by distinctly heard bubbling rales. What mechanism underlies the development of this syndrome?

    1. Acute left-ventricular failure

    2. Chronic right-ventricular failure

    3. Chronic left-ventricular failure

    4. Collapse

    5. Cardiac tamponade



  1. After a serious psychoemotional stress a 48 year old patient suddenly developed acute heart ache irradiating to the left arm. Nitroglycerine relieved pain after 10minutes. What is the leading pathogenetic mechanism of this process development?

    1. Spasm of coronary arteries

    2. Dilatation of peripheral vessels

    3. Obstruction of coronary vessels

    4. Compression of coronary vessels

    5. Increase in myocardial oxygen consumption




  1. The patient with acute myocardial infarction was given intravenously different solutions during 8 hours with medical dropper 1500 ml and oxygen intranasally. He died because of pulmonary edema. What caused the pulmonary edema?

    1. Volume overload of the left ventricular

    2. Decreased oncotic pressure due to hemodilution

    3. Allergic reaction

    4. Neurogenic reaction

    5. Inhalation of the oxygen




  1. A 35-year-old male developed acute heart failure while running for a long time.

What changes in the ionic composition can be observed in the cardiac muscle?

    1. Accumulation of Na+ and Ca2+ ions in the myocardium cells

    2. Accumulation of K+ and Mg2+ ions in the myocardium cells

    3. Reduction of Na+ and Ca2+ ions in the myocardium cells

    4. Reduction of K+ and Mg2+ ions in the extracellular space

    5. Reduction of Na+ and Ca2+ ions in the extracellular space




  1. A patient with extensive myocardial infarction has developed heart failure.

What pathogenetic mechanism contributed to the development of heart failure in the patient?

    1. Reduction in the mass of functioning myocardiocytes

    2. Pressure overload

    3. Volume overload

    4. Acute cardiac tamponade

    5. Myocardial reperfusion injury



  1. ECG of a 44-year-old patient shows of hypertrophy of both ventricles and the right atrium. The patient was diagnosed with the tricuspid valve insufficiency.

What pathogenetic variant of cardiac dysfunction is usually observed in case of such insufficiency?

  1. Heart overload by volume

  2. Heart overload by resistance

  3. Primary myocardial insufficiency

  4. Coronary insufficiency

  5. Cardiac tamponade



  1. A patient who had been continuously taking drugs blocking the production of angiotensin II developed bradycardia and arrhythmia. A likely cause of these disorders is:

    1. Hyperkalemia

    2. Hypokalemia

    3. Hypernatremia

    4. Hypocalcemia

    5. Hypercalcemia



  1. An isolated cell of human heart automatically generates excitement impulses with frequency of 60 times per minute. This cell was taken from the following heart structure:

    1. Sinoatrial node

    2. Atrium

    3. Ventricle

    4. Atrioventricular node

    5. His’ bundle



  1. Heart rate of a 30-year-old man under emotional stress reached 112 bpm. The reason for the heart rate increase is the altered condition of the following conducting system of heart:

    1. Sinoatrial node

    2. Purkinje’s fibers

    3. His’ bundle branches

    4. Atrioventricular node

    5. His’ bundle

  2. Since a patient has had myocardial infarction, his atria and ventricles contract independently from each other with a frequency of 60-70 and 35-40 per minute. Specify the type of heart block in this case:

    1. Complete atrioventricular


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