База тестів крок-1 з патофізіології (пмк-1)


A. Respiratory acidosis B



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A. Respiratory acidosis

B. Respiratory alkalosis

C. Metabolic acidosis

D. Metabolic alkalosis

E. Acid-base balance remains unchanged

Pathological physiology of organs and systems

Pathophysiology of the blood

Anemia.

  1. A 26 year old pregnant woman is under treatment at an in-patient hospital.

After a continuous attack of vomiting she was found to have reduced volume of circulating blood. What kind of change in general blood volume is the case?

    1. Polycythemic hypovolemia

    2. Simple hypovolemia

    3. Oligocythemic hypovolemia

    4. Polycythemic hypervolemia

    5. Oligocythemic hypervolemia

  1. A blood drop has been put into a test tube with 0,3% solution of NaCl.

What will happen to erythrocytes?

    1. Osmotic haemolysis

    2. Shrinkage

    3. Mechanical haemolysis

    4. Any changes will be observed

    5. Biological haemolysis

  1. In a dysentery patient undergoing treatment in the contagious isolation ward, a significant increase in packed cell volume has been observed (60%).

What other value will be affected by this change?

    1. Increasing blood viscosity

    2. Increasing volume of blood circulation

    3. Leukopenia

    4. Thrombocytopenia

    5. Increasing erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)




  1. During postembryonal haemopoiesis in the red bone marrow the cells of one of the cellular differons demonstrate a gradual decrease in cytoplasmic basophilia as well as an increase in oxyphilia, the nucleus is being forced out. Such morphological changes are typical for the following haemopoiesis type:

    1. Erythropoiesis

    2. Lymphopoiesis

    3. Neutrophil cytopoiesis

    4. Eosinophil cytopoiesis

    5. Basophil cytopoiesis




  1. In a car accident a man got injured and lost a lot of blood. What changes in peripheral blood are most likely to occur on the 2nd day after the injury?

    1. Erythropenia

    2. Hypochromia

    3. Anisocytosis

    4. Microplania

    5. Significant reticulocytosis

  2. Examination of a 52-year-old female patient has revealed a decrease in the amount of red blood cells and an increase in free hemoglobin in the blood plasma (hemoglobinemia).Color index is 0,85. What type of anemia is being observed in the patient?

    1. Acquired hemolytic

    2. Hereditary hemolytic

    3. Acute hemorrhagic

    4. Chronic hemorrhagic

    5. Anemia due to diminished erythropoiesis




  1. A 37-year-old female patient complains of headache, vertigo, troubled sleep, numbness of limbs. For the last 6 years she has been working at the gas-discharge lamp-producing factory in the lead-processing shop.

Blood test findings: low hemoglobin and RBC level, serum iron concentration exceeds the norm by several times.Specify the type of anemia:

    1. Iron refractory anemia

    2. Iron-deficiency anemia

    3. Minkowsky-Shauffard disease

    4. Hypoplastic anemia

    5. Metaplastic anemia




  1. A patient is diagnosed with irondeficiency sideroachrestic anemia, progression of which is characterized by skin hyperpigmentation, pigmentary cirrhosis, heart and pancreas affection. Iron level in the blood serum is increased. What disorder of iron metabolism causes this disease?

    1. Failure to assimilate iron leading to iron accumulation in tissues

    2. Excessive iron intake with food

    3. Disorder of iron absorption in bowels

    4. Increased iron assimilation by body

    5. -



  1. Degenerative changes in posterior and lateral columns of spinal cord (funicular myelosis) caused by methylmalonic acid accumulation occur in patients with B12-deficiency anemia. This results in synthesis disruption of the following substance:

    1. Myelin

    2. Acetylcholine

    3. Norepinephrine

    4. Dopamine

    5. Serotonin



  1. Blood test of a patient suffering from atrophic gastritis gave the following results: RBCs - 2, 0 · 1012 /l, Hb- 87 g/l, colour index - 1,3, WBCs - 4, 0 · 109/l, thrombocytes - 180 · 109/l. Anaemia migh have been caused by the following substance deficiency:

    1. Vitamin B12

    2. Vitamin A

    3. Vitamin K

    4. Iron

    5. Zinc




  1. A patient suffering from chronic myeloleukemia has got the following symptoms of anemia: decreased number of erythrocytes and low haemoglobin concentration, oxyphilic and polychromatophilic normocytes, microcytes. What is the leading pathogenetic mechanism of anemia development?

    1. Substitution of haemoblast

    2. Intravascular hemolysis of erythrocytes

    3. Deficiency of vitamin B12

    4. Reduced synthesis of erythropoietin

    5. Chronic haemorrhage



  1. On the fifth day after the acute blood loss a patient has been diagnosed with hypochromic anemia. What is the main mechanism of hypochromia development?



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