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Pathophysiology of the digestive system



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Pathophysiology of the digestive system

#In the patient, poisoning with mushrooms was followed by onset of yellow colour of the skin and scleras, urine became dark. What pigment coloures urine in the patient with hemolytic jaundice?

-Biliverdin

-Direct bilirubin

-Indirect bilirubin

+Stercobilin

-Verdohemoglobin

#With a purpose of modelling of stomach ulcer, a sclerosis of gastral arteries of an animal was performed. What is the main mechanism of damage of mucosa of the stomach in this experiment? -Disregulatory

-Neurodystrophical

-Mechanical

+Ischemic

-Neurohumoral

#The woman with chronic hepatitis complains of sensitization to barbiturates which she tolerated before without signs of intoxication. What function of the liver is damaged?

-Excretory

+Desintoxication

-Hemodynamical

-Hemopoietic

-Cytophagous

#In the 57-year-old woman an attack of hepatic colic was followed by jaundice. Ultrasound examination revealed an occlusion of the general bile duct with a stone. Rising level of what substance in a blood is evidence of mechanical jaundice?

-Verdohemoglobin

-Biliverdin

+Direct bilirubin

-Indirect bilirubin

-Stercobilin

#The patient, 58 years old, had hepatitis B. Later he developed signs of hepatocirrhosis with ascites and edema of the inferior extremities. What changes of blood composition led to development of edemas?

+Hypoalbuminemia

-Hypohammaglobulinemia

-Hypocholesterinemia

-Hypokalemia

-Hypoglycemia

#The patient has syndrome of Zollingear-Allison (tumour of the pancreas). Elevation of gastric secretion and acidity, ulcers in the duodenum and jejunum are observed. What substance is produced by the tumour and provokes this syndrome?

-Secretin

-Vasoactive intestinal peptide

-Pepsin


-Trypsin

+Gastrin

#An ultrasound examination of the patient enabled to establish an initial diagnosis: cancer of the liver. What protein occurs in blood in this case?

-γ-globulin

-Properdin

-Paraproteins

-С-reactive protein

+α-Phetoprotein

#The man, 20 years old, who participated in liquidation of consequences of tragedy on Chernobyl atomic power station, suffers from paradontosis. What is the main etiological factor of development of this pathology?

-Iron deficiency

+Emotional stress

-Unproper nutrition

-Rising of mechanical loading on the dento-mandibular apparatus -Streptococcus infection of the oral cavity

#Caries was reproduced in an experiment. What compensatory reactions developed?

+Formation of secondary dentine by fibrilloblasts

-Neogenesis of enamel

-Hypotrophy of salivary glands

-Inhibition of phagocytosis

-Hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands

#The patient suffers from inflammation of the trigeminal nerve and progressive parodontosis. What is the pathogenesis of paradontosis in this case? -Decrease of immunoglobulins in salvia

-Decrease of cytophagous activity of leucocytes

+Dystrophic changes in the paradentium

-Hypertonus of the vagus nerve

-Hypersalivation

#The patient came to a doctor with complaints of purulent exudate from gingival pocket and loosening the teeth. What is the cause of purulent parodontite in this case? -Hypersalivation -Viral infection.

+Bacterial infection

-Local anaphylaxis

-Generalized anaphylaxis

#The patient, 35 years old, developed immune hemolytic anemia. Level of what substance increases in serum of blood most of all?

-Mesobilinogen

-Direct bilirubin

-Stercobilinogen

+Indirect bilirubin

-Protoporphyrin

#The patient, 57 years old, was delivered to the gastroenterological department with a suspicion of Zollinger-Allison's syndrome. An evidence of it was high level of gastrin in serum of blood. What kind of secretory function disturbance of the stomach is most probable in this case?

+Hyperacidic hypersecretion

-Hyperacidic hyposecretion

-Achylia

-Hypoacidic hyposecretion

-Hypoacidic hypersecretion

#A woman, 55 years old, complains of tiredness, irritability, sleeplessness at night and sleepiness during daylight hours, skin itching. Pulse - 58, arterial pressure - 110/65 mm Hg. Excrements are colourless and contain a lot of fat. The initial diagnosis is cholelithiasis with an occlusion of the common bile duct with stone. What is the cause of nervous symptoms? -Lipids absorption disorder

-Hyperbilirubinemia

-Hypercholesterinemia

-Disorder of liposoluble vitamins absorption +Cholemia

#The patient with high mechanical intestinal obstruction complains of abdominal pain, an abundant multiple vomiting within last 3 hours, dispnoe. Objectively - pulse 110, arterial pressure - 90/50 mm Hg. Hematocryte index – 0.52, hyponatriemia. What is the main mechanism of cardiovascular disorders?

-Alkalosis

-Respiratory acidosis

+Dehydration, hypovolemia

-Intestinal endointoxication

-Hypoxia

#In the patient suffering from hepatocirrhosis ascites, splenomegaly, dilatation of subcutaneous weins of the anterior abdominal wall, peripheric edemas are found. What pathological syndrome has developed?

-Hepatocerebral

-Arterial hypertension

-Hepatocardiac

-Hepatorenal

+Portal hypertension

#The patient for a long time took glucocorticoids. Fibrogastroscopy revealed erosions and ulcers in the stomach and duodenum. What mechanism determines the development of ulcers?

-Rising production of Prostaglandins Е

-Decreased influence of histamine on the mucous of the stomach

-Rising tonus of sympathetic nervous system

+Deficite of factors of mucous protection

-Decrease of gastric secretion and acidity

#The newborn has hemolytic illness. Encephalopathy has developed. The increased level of what substance in blood has caused the lesion of the CNS?

+Bilirubin unrelated to albumine

-Bilirubin - albumine complex

-Bilirubin - glucuronide complex

-Verdohemoglobin

-Bile acids

#5 years ago the patient underwent gastrectomy. Now a stomatologist has found atrophicinflammatory processes of the mucous in the oral cavity of the gums and tongue. What is the cause of these changes?

-Vitamin C deficiency

+Vitamin B12 deficiency

-Vitamin B1 deficiency

-Disturbance of nutrition

-Psychoemotional stress

#The patient complaining of yellowing of scleras and skin, darkening of urine and fecies consulted the doctor. Analysis of blood: erythrocytes – 2.5 ·1012/L, haemoglobin - 80 g/L, colour index – 0.9, a lot of reticulocytes. What form of jaundice has developed?

-Mechanical

-Parenchymatous

-Nuclear

+Hemolytic

-Shuntous





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