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Pathophysiology of the respiratory system Hypoxia



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Pathophysiology of the respiratory system Hypoxia

#The patient, 23 years old, was hospitalized with craniocerebral trauma being in serious condition. Respiration is characterized by convulsive prolonged inspiration and short expiration. What type of respiration is it? -Kussmaul’s

-Gasp hasping-respirations

+Apneastic

-Chane-Stoke’s

-Biot’s


#Cutting of the both vagus nerves is reproduced in the experiment. What type of respiration will an animal develop?

-Frequent and superficial

-Frequent and deep

-Infrequent and superficial

+Infrequent and deep

-Periodical

#5 ml of air was injected into pleural cavity of a rat. What type of respiration failure develops in this case?

+Restructive impairment of alveolar ventilation

-Obstructive impairment of alveolar ventilation

-Perfusive

-Diffusive

-Disregulatory impairment of the alveolar ventilation

#The patient has been delivered to the hospital in a condition of diabetic coma. Respiration is noisy, frequent, enforced expiration follows deep inspiration. What type of respiration is it?

-Apneastic

-Chaine-Stoke’s

-Gasp hasping-respiration

-Apneastic

+Kussmaul’s

#The patient with diphtheria developed edema of the larynx. In addition, the infrequent and deep respiration with difficult inspiration was observed. What is this respiration called? -Apneastic

-Kussmaul’s -Chaine-Stoke’s

+Stenotic

-Gasp hasping-respiration

#The man in unconscious condition was delivered to the hospital after a poisoning with carbon monoxide. Appearance of what substance in blood provokes hypoxia?

+Carboxyhaemoglobin

-Methaemoglobin

-Carbohaemoglobin

-Oxyhemoglobin

-Desoxyhaemoglobin

#The man, 30 years old, complains of dyspnoe, sensation of heaviness in the right part of the chest, general weakness. Body temperature is 38.9 °C. Objectively: dextral part of the thorax during respiration is behind left. Exudate has been received from pleurocentests in the right part of the chest. What is the main cause of exudation?

-Decrease of resorbtion of pleural fluid

-Rising of blood pressure

-Hyperproteinemia

-Aggregation of erythrocytes

+Rising of permeability of the vessels wall

#A blocker of cytochrome oxydase was injected to an experimental animal. The animal immediately died. What substance caused death of the animal?

-Potassium oxalate

-Potassium nitrite

-Potassium sulphate

-Potassium phosphate

+Potassium cyanide

#The mountain climber is at height 6000 m above the sea level. He experiences euphoria, inadequate assessment of the situation, hallucinations. What is the main cause of development of these mountain sickness symptoms?

-Decrease of fractional pressure of carbon dioxide in air

-Exercise stress

+Decrease of fractional pressure of Oxygen in air

-Snow ophthalmia

-Dilating of air in the frontal sinuses

#The patient demonstrates expiratory type of dyspnoe. What pathology is the most probably cause of such disturbance?

-General excitation of the CNS

-Pneumothorax

-Circulatory insufficiency

+Emphysema

-The first stage of asphyxia

#The man, 50 years old, was taken from the closed room full of smoke from a fire. He was unconscious. What kind of hypoxia did at the victim develop?

-Hypoxic

-Respiratory

+Hemic


-Histic

-Circulatory

#The teenager, 12 years old, has developed a serious attack of bronchial asthma with such symptoms as: pronounced expiratory dyspnoe, pale skin. What kind of alveolar ventilation disorder takes its place?

-Nervimuscular

-Restrictive

-Thoracic-diaphragm

-Central

+Obstructive

#The sportsman was climbing the mountain for several hours. At height of 4800 m he suffered from dyspnoe, palpitation, bursting headache. What is the cause of such signs?

-Decrease of barometric air pressure

+Decrease of fractional pressure of Oxygen in air

-Lack of ventilation

-Gas embolism

-Decrease of air temperature

#The patient was hospitalized into otolaryngologic department with a foreign body in the upper respiratory tract. What kind of pathological respiration is observed in this case?

-Frequent, superficial

-Frequent, deep

+Infrequent, deep

-Kussmaul’s

-Periodic

#An X-ray examination revealed diffuse atelectase in a newborn. What is the most possible cause of this condition?

-Bronchopneumonia

-Bronchial asthma

-Occlusion of the pulmonary artery

+Deficiency of surfactant

-Pulmonary tuberculosis

#The woman, 45 years old, for a long time has been ill with bronchial asthma. Now an attack of dyspnoe occurred. What is the pathogenic mechanism of this phenomenon?

-Decrease of sensitivity of the respiratory center

-Loss of elasticity of the pulmonary tissue

+Spasm of small bronchi

-Decrease of the thorax motility

-Decrease of the pulmonary tissue perfusion

#The patient demonstrates – decreased amount of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in blood, reduced color index, low concentration of iron in serum, microanisocytosis, poikilocytosis. These changes are accompanied by development of hypoxia. What kind of hypoxia is observed in this case? -Exogenous

-Hypoxic

-Circulatory

+Hemical

-Respiratory

#Pneumosclerosis accompanied with disturbance of alveolar ventilation has been revealed in the miner. What is the main mechanism of alveolar disturbance?

-Failure of nervous control of respiration

-Narrowing of the upper respiratory track

+Decrease of distensibility of the lungs

-Low motility of the thorax

-Bronchial spasm

#The solution of potassium cyanide was injected to the animal. What type of hypoxia has developed in this case?

-Hemic

-Respiratory

-Hypoxic

+Histic


-Circulatory

#The man, 60 years old, suffering from diabetes, was delivered to the hospital in coma. Respiration is noisy, and accelerated. Deep inspirations alternate with intensified expiration with participation of the expiratory muscles. What form of respiration is observed?

+Kussmaul’s

-Stenotic

-Tachypnoe

-Chaine-Stoke’s

-Biot’s

#The patient with pulmonary tuberculosis has deficiency of surfactant. What pathological changes will take place in pulmonary tissue resulting from absence of surfactant?

-Emphysema

+Atelectasis

-Bronchospasm

-Edema


-Lymphostasis

#Epileptic convulsions have been complicated by development of asphyxia resulting from crash and aspiration of dental prostheses. What type of respiratory insufficiency has developed? -Diffusive

-Ventilating restructive

-Ventilating dysregulatory

-Perfusive

+Ventilating obstructive

#The man, 40 years old, complains of a fever, general sickness, headache, cough with expectoration, dyspnoe. After clinical visual inspection, a diagnosis of bronchopneumonia was established. What form of hypoxia is it?

-Hemical

-Circulatory

+Respiratory

-Histic

-Hypoxical

#The man, 50 years old, with chronic bronchitis, complains of a dispnoe during exercise, constant cough with expectoration. During inspection emphysema of the lungs was revealed. What is the cause of this emphysema?

-Decreased perfusion of the lungs

-Decreased alveolar ventilation

-Decreased distensibility of the lungs

+Decreased elastic properties of the lungs

-Disturbance of ventilation-perfusive interrelation in the lungs

#The patient was operated on the lungs. The heart stopped. Its regular contractions were restored only in 10 minutes. What organ suffered from hypoxia most of all? -Spleen

-Heart


-Liver

-Kidneys

+Brain cortex



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