База тестів крок-1 з патофізіології (пмк-1)


Pathological physiology of organs and systems



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Pathological physiology of organs and systems

Pathophysiology of the blood

#The scleras and skin of the 20-year-old patient periodically become yellow; he feels sickness. Diagnosis: Minkovski-Shoffar desease. What are the typical findings of the blood test?

-Agranulocytosis

-Anulocytosis

+Microspherocytosis

-Macrocytosis

-Thrombocytosis

#The boy, 3 years old, with pronounced hemorrhagic syndrome doesn’t have antihemophilic globulin A (the factor VIII) in blood plasma. What phase of hemostasis is primarily broken in such a case?

-Retraction of bloody clot

-The external mechanism of prothrombinase activation

-Transformation of thrombinogen to thrombin

-Transformation of fibrinogen to fibrin

+The intrinsic mechanism of prothrombinase activation

#The child, 1.5 years old, was hospitalized with symptoms of nitrate poisoning: persistant cyanosis, dyspnoe, convultions. Synthesis of hemoglobin what form is the cause of these symptoms?

-Carbonhemoglobin

+Methemoglobin

-Carboxyhemoglobin

-Sulfhemoglobin

-Oxyhemoglobin

#The child, 3 years old, was hospitalized with a hemoglobinopathy (sickle cell anemia). What amino- acid replaced glutamin acid in a β-chain of haemoglobin S?

-Arginine

-Serine


-Thyrosin

-Phenylalanine +Valine

#The patient who has arrived from Tunis revealed α-thalassemia with hemolysis of erythrocytes and icterus. Presence of what cells in blood is typical for this illness?

+Targetlike erythrocytes

-Granular erythrocytes

-Polychromatophilous erythrocytes

-Normocytes

-Reticulocytes

#The patient, 36 years old, with respiratory viral infection was treated with sulphanilamide drugs. Blood test findings revealed hyporegenerative normochrome anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, in bone nerrow - decreased amount of myelokariocytes. What anemia is it? -Posthemorrhagic

-Hemolytic

+Hypoplastic

-

Deficient - В12 and Folic



-Iron – deficient

#Microcythemia, poikilocytosis, and anulocytosis are found in the patient’s blood smear, anulocytose. What anemia are these changes characteristic for?

-Microspherocytic

-

Deficient – В12 and Folic



-Hypoplastic

-Sickle cell anemia

+Iron - deficient

#A resection of the stomach was perfomed to a patient. Then he developed В12-deficient anemia. What color index is characteristic for this anemia?

-0.4

-0.5


-0.8

-1.0


+1.4

#The test findings of peripheric blood of the patient 42, years old, are: hemoglobin - 80 g/L, erythrocytes - 3,2 ·1012/L, leucocytes - 25 ·109/L, the leukocytic formula: basophils - 5%, eosinophils - 9%, myeloblasts - 3%, promyelocytes - 8%; neutrophils: myelocytes - 11%, metamyelocytes - 22%, stab neutrophile - 17%, segmentinuclei - 19%, lymphocytes - 3%, monocytes - 3%. What kind of pathology of blood is it?

-Eritromielosis

-Mieloblastic leukosis

+Myelosis

-Promielocytic leukosis

-Panmyelophthisis

#The woman complains of headache, giddiness, dispnoe while an exercise stress. During last 3 years extensive menstrual bleedings were marked. Results of visual inspection: the patient has normal body type, skin is pale and dry. Analysis of blood: hemoglobin - 90 g/L, erythrocytes - 3,7 ·1012/L, a color index - 0,7, SSE - 20 mm/h, significant hypochromia of erythrocytes, anisocytosis, poikilocytosis. What type of anemia is it?

-Hypoplastic

-Hemolytic

-Acute posthemorrhagic

-

В12 and Folic - deficient



Chronic posthemorrhagic

+

#The woman is at the 6-th month of pregnancy. Blood findings: the amount of erythrocytes and a hemoglobin is reduced, color index - 1,4, megalocytes, oxyfile megaloblasts. What type of anemia is it?



-Iron-deficient

+B12-and Folic-deficient

-Myelotoxic

-Aplastic

-Metaplastic

#Woman, 34 years old, with dignosed hereditary hemolytic microspherocytar anemia (Minovski-Shoffar desease). What is the cause of hemolysis of erythrocytes in this case? -Fermentopathia

-Endogenic intoxication

-Hemoglobinopathia

-Autoimmune lesion

+Membranopathia

#Blood examination revealed - leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, Botkin-Gumperht shades, and anemia. What disease can it be?

-Acute myeloleukemia

+Chronic lymphoid leukosis

-Myelosis

-Infectious mononucleosis -Acute leukosis

#Blood examination revealed thrombocytopenia as a complication of autoimmune process.

What is the mechanism of thrombocytopenia onset ih this case?

-Disturbance of regulation of thrombocytopoesis

-Decrease of production of thrombocytes

-Redistribution of thrombocytes

+Increased distruction of thrombocytes

-Increased consumption of thrombocytes

#The man, 40 years old, was established the diagnosis: sickle cell anemia. What is the mechanism of decreasing of erythrocytes count in blood?

+Intracellular hemolysis

-Intravascular hemolysis

-Bleeding

-Inhibition of erythropoesis

-Disturbance of DNA synthesis

#A clinical observation of a man, 50 years old, revealed the decreased amount of erythrocytes in blood and increased level of free hemoglobin in blood plasma (hemoglobinemia). The color index-0,85. What kind of anemia is the most probable in this case?

-Chronic posthemorrhagic

+Aquired hemolytic

-Acute posthemorrhagic

-Hypoplastic

-Metaplastic

#The patient with a chronic diffuse glomerulonephritis suffers from anemia. What is the pathogenesis of this anemia?

-Presence of antibodies to cells of peripheric blood

-Iron-deficiency

-Increased deficiency of internal Castle factor

-Hemolysis of erythrocytes

+Diminished production of erytropoethin

#Degenerative and regenerative forms of erythrocytes were found in a peripheric blood of the patient with toxic hemolytic anemia. What cells are referred the regenerative forms?

-Spherocytes

-Microcytes

+Reticulocytes

-Poikilocytes

-Hyperchromic erythrocytes

#The erythrocytes of the patient with hypochromic anemia contain 45% Hb S and 55% Hb А1. What form of anemia is it?

-Microspherocytic

-α-thalassemia

-Addison-Birmer illness

-Glucose-6-phosphatdehydrogynase-deficienty +Sicklecellular

#The woman, 40 years old, regularly used aspirin. Hemorrhages occured, there was detected disturbance of functional activity of thrombocytes. Depression of what enzyme activity may be trombocytotopathy caused by?

-G-6-PhDG (glucose-6-phosphatedegydrogenase)

-Cholinesterase

-Cytochrome oxydase

+Cyclooxygenase -Na+/K+-ATP- ase

#A woman, 58 years old, complains of tiredness, sleepiness, dyspnoe while fast walking. Analysis of blood: erythrocytes - 4·1012/L, hemoglobin - 92 g/L, color index - 0,6, plenty of anulocytes and microcytes. What anemia is it?

-Thalassemia

+Iron-deficiency

-Hemolytic

-Pernicious

-Sickle-like-cell

#Iron-deficiency anemia has been revealed in a patient. Atrophic and dystrophic processes in the alimentary canal (glossitis, gingivitis, caries, esophagitis) can be consequences of a long course of this disease. What is the cause of such changes associated with this anemia?

-Decreased activity of glycolysis

-Rising activity of transaminase

-Rising activity of proteases

+Decreased activity of iron-contained enzymes

-Rising activity of catalase





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