База тестів крок-1 з патофізіології (пмк-1)

Дата конвертації25.01.2021
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1.-D. 2.-A. 3.-B. 4.-E. 5.-A. 6.-E. 7.-D. 8.-B. 9.-A. 10.-C. 11.-C. 12.-E. 13.-C. 14.-C.

15.-A. 16.-B. 17.-A. 18.-A. 19.-A. 20.-B. 21.-A. 22.-A.

Topic 16. Pathophysiology of endocrine system.
1. The height of an adult is 100cm, in proportional constitution and normal mental development. What hormone insufficiency do the indicated signs characterize?

  1. Growth hormone*

  2. Thyroxin

  3. Antidiuretic

  4. Mineralocorticoids E. Gonadotropic hormone.

2. Under the influence of harmful ecological factors the normal formation of lysosomes is inhibited in thyrocytes. What stage of hormone production of thyroid gland will be impaired?

  1. Synthesis of colloid

  2. Iodination of colloid

  3. Synthesis of thyroglobulin

  4. Reabsorption of colloid

  5. Proteolysis of phagocytosed colloid from follicles.*

3. Diabetes insipidus appeared in a patient after cerebral infarction with impairment of hypothalamus nuclei. What is the cause for increased urination in this patient?

  1. Decrease of reabsorption of sodium

  2. Acceleration of glomerular filtration

  3. Decrease of water reabsorption*

  4. Decrease of arterial pressure

  5. Hyperglycemia

4. What hormone stimulates inclusion of calcium in osteoblasts of bone tissue in tooth? A. Insulin

  1. Thyroxin

  2. Parathormone

  3. Hydrocortisone

  4. Calcitonin*

5. A 10-year-old child has a height of 178 cm and weight of 64 kg. What endocrine gland disorder does this connected with?

  1. Sexual glands

  2. Adrenal glands

  3. Parathyroid glands D. Pituitary gland*

E. Thyroid gland.
6. A patient with thyrotoxicosis has hyperthermia, bulimia, and loss of weight. What kind of impairment does this connected to?

  1. Reaction of fat synthesis

  2. Lyses of ATP

  3. Conjunction oxidation and phosphorylation*

  4. Reaction of citric acid cycle

  5. Reaction of beta-oxidation of fatty acid.

7. During an experiment on animals the nervous tracts leading to the crus of hypophysis were broken. That impaired the entrance of the following hormones into the blood.

  1. Hypophysis hormones

  2. Vasopressin and oxytocin*

  3. Adenohypophysis hormone

  4. Thyrotropic hormone

  5. Adrenocorticotropic hormone

8. A careless student suddenly meets his dean. What hormone concentration will be increased in student’s blood more rapidly?

  1. Somatotropin

  2. Hydrocortisone

  3. Corticotropin

  4. Thyroliberin

  5. Adrenalin*

9. A women aged 44 complains of general malaise, pain in the heart area, and considerable increase of body weight. At examination of this patient following symptoms are revealed: lunar face, hirsutism, BP 165/100 mmHg, height is 164 cm, weight is 103kg, the adipose deposits mainly on the neck, shoulders, abdomen. What is the main pathogenic mechanism of the woman’s obesity?

  1. Decrease of thyroid hormone production

  2. Decrease of glycogen production

  3. Increase of glucocorticoid production*

  4. Increase of insulin production

  5. Increase of mineralocorticoid production.

10. A child has a time disturbance of teeth eruption, enamel anomalies, and its lips and tongue are enlarged. What hormone deficiency causes these changes?

  1. Thyroxin*

  2. Parathormone

  3. Thyrocalcitonin

  4. Insulin

  5. Somatotropin

11. At clinical examination of a woman it was determined increase of basal metabolism rate by 40%, increased perspiration, tachycardia, and leanness. What endocrine gland functions are impaired and what direction in?

  1. Sexual glands, hypofunction

  2. Cortical substance of adrenal glands, hyperfunction

  3. Medulla of adrenal glands, hyperfunction

  4. Thyroid gland, hyperfunction*

  5. Pancreatic gland, hyperfunction

12. A young man aged 17 has the signs of retention of sexual development; his height is 184 cm; he is asthenic; his secondary sexual characters are weakly developed. Sex chromatin is absent in this patient’s cells. At the age of 4 he endured epidemic parotitis. What was the cause of hypogonadism?

  1. Deficiency of gonadoliberin

  2. Deficiency of gonadotropin

  3. Cryptorchism

  4. Orchitis*

  5. Chromosomal anomalies (XXY)

13. A patient aged 20 complains of polydipsia and abundant urination (up to 10 liters for 24 hrs); concentration of glucose in his blood is normal; in his urine glucose is absent. What hormone absence may cause such clinical picture?

  1. Oxytocin

  2. Vasopressin*

  3. Insulin

  4. Hydrocortisone

  5. Triiodothyronine

14. A woman with primary hyperparathyroidism has periodically repeated attacks of renal colic. Ultrasound examination shows presence of small stones in her kidneys. What is the cause of the formation of these stones?

  1. Hypercholesterolemia

  2. Hyperuricemia

  3. Hyperkalemia

  4. Hyperphosphatemia

  5. Hypercalcemia*

15. Substances which imitate morphine effects but which are produced in CNS may be used for analgesia. Indicate them:

  1. Somatotropin

  2. Oxytocin

  3. Beta-endorphin*

  4. Vasopressin

  5. Calcitonin

16. Dilated pupils, dryness of mucous membranes, accelerated heart rate, constipation, and tremor are observed in some people during emotional exertion. What system activation will lead to such changes in the organism?

  1. Pituitary-adrenal system

  2. Sympathetic nervous system

  3. Sympathoadrenal system*

  4. Somatic nervous system

  5. Parasympathetic nervous system

17. In ancient India those people who were suspected in committing crimes were given swallow a handful of dry rice. Criminals couldn’t swallow rice due to decreased salivation (oligosalivation) caused by: A. Decrease of blood supply of salivary glands

  1. Activation of sympathoadrenal system*

  2. Activation of parasympathetic nucleus of glossopharyngeal nerve

  3. Inhibition of sympathoadrenal system

  4. Activation of parasympathetic nucleus of facial nerve

18. A patient aged 23 complains of headache, changes of his appearance (increase of size of feet, fingers, features of the face), hoarseness of the voice, worsening of the memory. The disease has begun 3 years ago without any causes. Increase of superciliary arches, nose, and tongue were found during physical examination of this patient; the blood sugar was normal; the urinalysis is out of changes. What is the cause of such condition?

  1. Excessive production of corticosteroids

  2. Excessive production of somatotropin*

  3. Insufficiency of aldosterone

  4. Insufficiency of glucagon

  5. Insufficiency of thyroxin

19. Adrenalin is used to prolong Novocain action in infiltration anesthesia. What adrenalin action is this effect connected with?

  1. Potentiation of Novocain action at the level of CNS

  2. Inhibition of function of nerve ending and conductors

  3. Dilatation of vessels

  4. Constriction of vessels*

  5. Inhibition of tissue esterases

20. A patient aged 80 complains of increased appetite, thirst, excretion of large amount of urine, and worsening of general condition after taking sweet food. What disease is it?

  1. Hypercorticoidism

  2. Hyperthyroidism

  3. Hypothyroidism

  4. Diabetes insipidus

  5. Diabetes mellitus*

21. Persistent hyperglycemia developed in a patient with Cushing’s syndrome under the influence of excessive amount of glucocorticoids. What is the mechanism of hyperglycemia in this case?

  1. Activation of glycogenolysis at the liver

  2. Activation of gluconeogenesis*

  3. Activation of insulinase of the liver

  4. Decrease of hexokinase activation

  5. Increase of absorption of glucose in intestine

22. A man aged 38 is in stress state due to industrial conflict. Which of below mentioned hormones participate in starting stress reaction of the organism?

  1. Adrenalin*

  2. ACTH

  3. Glucagon

  4. Hydrocortisone

  5. Thyroxin

23. A woman aged 28 addressed to a doctor a month later after delivery with complaints of decreased breast milk formation. What hormone insufficiency caused this condition?

  1. ACTH

  2. Glucagon

  3. Insulin

  4. Prolactin*

  5. GH

24. While examining a patient a doctor suspected Cushing’s syndrome. What substance determination in patient’s blood will prove doctor’s supposition?

  1. Tocopherol

  2. Adrenalin

  3. Cholesterol

  4. Retinol

  5. Cortisol*

25. The attacks of convulsions appeared in a patient after resection of thyroid gland. What preparation must be administered in this case?

  1. Somatotropin

  2. Insulin

  3. Thyroxin

  4. Prednisolone

  5. Parathyroid hormone*

26. A dog with endocrine pathology had decreased oxygen usage in the state of rest, decreased body temperature, and decrease of glucose tolerance. What hormone insufficiency may explain the discovered changes?

  1. Growth hormone

  2. Thyroxin*

  3. Gonadotropin

  4. Adrenocorticotropic hormone

  5. Insulin

27. A patient aged 50 complains of thirst, he drinks much water, has marked polyuria. His blood glucose - 4.8 mmol/L, glucose and acetone bodies are absent in the urine; urine is colorless, its specific gravity - 1.002-1.004. What is the cause of polyuria?

  1. Insufficiency of ADH*

  2. Hypothyrosis

  3. Insulin insufficiency

  4. Aldosteronism

  5. Thyrotoxicosis

28. A patient aged 40 was hospitalized with complaints of general malaise, convulsions of upper and lower extremities, his BP - 160/100 mm Hg. The results of laboratory examination of him: blood glucose - 6.5 mmol/L, calcium - 2 mmol/L, phosphates - 1 mmol/L, sodium-160 mmol/L. Urination-700 ml for 24 hours. What pathology causes such state?

  1. Hyperaldosteronism*

  2. Hypoaldosteronism

  3. Hyperparathyroidism

  4. Thyrotoxicosis

  5. Rickets

29. Pilosis by male type and increase of muscular mass began appearing in a boy of 5 years old who had developed previously without declination from the age norms. At examination of the patient marked secondary male sexual signs were revealed, but the size of his testes corresponds to his age. What is the cause of precocious puberty?

  1. Androgen producing adrenal tumor*

  2. Hormone producing testis tumor

  3. Increase of gonadotropin production

  4. Increase of adrenocorticotropin production

  5. Increase of gonadoliberin production

30. Why must a patient, who has taken prednisolone for rheumatoid arthritis for a long time, avoid contacts with infectious patients?

  1. Because of the development of secondary immunodeficiency*

  2. Because of risk of exacerbation of arthritis

  3. Because of risk of thromboembolic complications development

  4. Because of the development of lymphopenia

  5. Because of the blockade of interferon formation

31. Liquidator of an accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant began complaining of increased excitability, nervousness, heartbeat, decrease of body weight, constant weakness, body tremor, feeling of fever, bad heat endurance. What gland hyperfunction may be the cause of such state?

  1. Thyroid gland*

  2. Adenohypophysis

  3. Adrenal gland

  4. Medulla of adrenal gland

  5. Parathyroid gland

  1. Muscular weakness, adynamia, decrease of body temperature, hypoglycemia, developed in a dog after two-sided resection of adrenal gland. What other manifestation of adrenal insufficiency may be noted?

    1. Lymphopenia

    2. Arterial hypotension*

    3. Increase of glycogen synthesis

    4. Hypernatremia

    5. Hypokalemia

  1. A woman complains of increased irritability, perspiration, weakness, loss of body weight, tremor of extremities, increased heartbeat rate, and exophthalmia. What metabolic impairment in the organism accompanies this disease?

    1. Increase of adenosine triphosphoric acid synthesis

    2. Decrease of organism sensitivity to hypoxia

    3. Weakening of phospholipase activation

    4. Increase of basal metabolism*

    5. Decrease of cholesterol lysis

  1. A patient who suffered from severe thyrotoxicosis had been operated on for strumectomy after that weakness, sensitivity to cold, increase of body weight, paleness and dryness of skin developed. What are the other manifestations of hypothyrosis?

    1. Inhibition of CNS activity*

    2. Tachycardia

    3. Increase of basal metabolism

    4. Increase of intestinal peristalsis

    5. Decrease of tolerance to carbohydrates

  1. In case of hypercortisolism – Cushing’s disease – the following changes in the organism take place:

    1. Development of cachexia

    2. Impoverishment of the liver with glycogen

    3. Hyperglycemia*

    4. Hypotension

    5. Lymphocytosis

  1. A patient was admitted to the hospital with complaints of loss of weight, quick fatigability, darkening of skin. His heart sounds are dull. What are the other manifestations of adrenal insufficiency?

    1. Lymphopenia

    2. Adynamia*

    3. Arterial hypertension

    4. Increase of minute blood volume

    5. Increased appetite

  1. A patient admitted to the hospital complains of quick fatigability, loss of weight, hyperpigmentation of the skin. Her heart sounds are dull. She has pulse rate - 96 beats per minute and BP - 90/50 Hg. What metabolic impairments are observed in hypocortisolism? A. Hyperkalemia

  1. Increase of glycogen synthesis

  2. Hypernatremia

  3. Hyperhydration

  4. Hypoglycemia*

38. The manifestations of hypoparathyrosis developed in a patient after strumectomy. What changes in the organism are observed in this case?

  1. Hypophosphatemia

  2. Resorption of bone tissue

  3. Acidosis

  4. Hypocalcemia*

  5. Decrease of neuromuscular excitability

39. Small height, disproportional development of the body, and insufficient mental development were found in a boy of 10 during examination. What hormone deficiency caused these changes?

  1. Thyroxin*

  2. Parathormone

  3. Thyrocalcitonin

  4. Adrenocorticotropic hormone

  5. Oxytocin

40. With the help of indirect calorimetrical measurement it was determined that the basal metabolism of the patient was 40% lower than the proper one. What endocrine gland hypofunction is the cause of described changes?

  1. Adrenal glands

  2. Thyroid gland*

  3. Epiphysis

  4. Thymus

  5. Pancreas

41. After suffered sepsis a bronze color of the skin typical for Addison’s disease appeared in a woman aged 27. Hyperpigmentation occurs due to the increased secretion of:

  1. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone*

  2. Growth hormone

  3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone

  4. B-lipotropic hormone

  5. Thyrotropic hormone

42. A patient with rheumatic arthritis was given hydrocortisone for a long period of time. He developed hyperglycemia, polyuria, glycosuria, and thirst. These complications after treatment develop due to the activation of the process of:

  1. Gluconeogenesis*

  2. Glycogenolysis

  3. Glycogenesis

  4. Glycolysis

  5. Lipolysis

43. Fibrillary muscular tics of arms, legs and face appeared in a woman aged 46 after the operation on thyroid gland. These disorders may be eliminated by injection of:

  1. Parathyroidin*

  2. Triiodothyronine

  3. Thyrotropin

  4. Thyroxin E. Calcitonin.

44. Atrophy of the testis developed in an athlete who systemically used androgen hormones. This phenomenon is due to the inhibition of secretion of:

  1. Gonadotropic hormone*

  2. Corticoliberin

  3. Prolactoliberin D. Gonadoliberin

E. Testosterone.
45. During the examination of the patient a doctor found out Cushing’s disease that is characterized by obesity. It is connected with:

  1. Excessive use of fats with meal

  2. Impairment of ventromedial nuclei of hypothalamus

  3. Inhibition of adrenalin synthesis by adrenal glands D. Production of excessive amount of glycocorticoids*

E. Hereditary tendency to hyperlipemia.
46. A patient with diffuse toxic goiter has marked exophthalmia. The appearance of exophthalmia is explained in this pathology by: A. Antibody circulation against thyroglobulin

  1. Presence of immunoglobulins in the blood

  2. Production of exophthalmia factor by hypophysis D. Increase of adrenoreceptor sensitivity to catecholamines*

E. Pathogenic action of thyroid prostaglandins.
47. A patient with myxedema came to a doctor. Her face was puffy with poor facial expression; she had thickened nose and lips. These signs can be explained by:

  1. Free filtration of sodium in glomeruli

  2. Accumulation of hydrophilic mucous substances*

  3. Impairment of sensitivity of volumo- and osmoreceptor D. Increase of sodium reabsorption in tubules (canaliculi)

E. Increased permeability of capillary walls.
48. After physic exertion a patient with pheochromocytoma complains of tachycardia, increased arterial pressure, and sharp pain in epigastric area. These attacks may be explained by:

  1. Massive release of catecholamines by adrenal glands*

  2. Release of norepinephrine by sympathetic nerves

  3. Activation of hypothalamus vegetative nuclei

  4. Increase of thyroid hormone secretion

  5. Increased synthesis of adrenocorticotrophic hormone

49. Excessive secretion of a certain hormone was observed in a patient with pheochromocytoma -a tumor, which appears from the medulla of adrenal glands. How is this hormone called?

  1. Glucagon

  2. Insulin

  3. Thyroxin

  4. Adrenalin*

  5. Somatotropin

50. Adenoma, which grows from the cells of glomerular zone of adrenal cortex and is the source of excessive formation of aldosterone was found in a patient. This resulted in a development of primary hyperaldosteronism or Conn’s disease. What electrolyte exchange does this hormone influence?

  1. Ferric ion

  2. Calcium ion

  3. Magnesium ion

  4. Chlorine ion

  5. Sodium ion*

51. Weakness, thirst, sharp increase of neuromuscular excitability with the development of parathyroid tetany were observed in a dog 1-2 days later after resection of thyroid glands. What disturbance of electrolyte exchange takes place in this condition? A. Hypercalcemia

  1. Hypocalcemia*

  2. Hypomagnemia

  3. Hypermagnemia

  4. Hyponatremia

52. Removal of cancer tumor of the testis in a patient before the period of sexual maturity resulted in the development of eunuchoidism and was accompanied by the deficiency of the production of:

  1. Androgens*

  2. Estrogens

  3. Kinins

  4. Prostaglandins

  5. Cytokines

53. Male patient aged 55 had an increase of pituitary gland dimensions and hyperplasia of adrenal cortex. At examination of the patient: BP-190/90 mm Hg, content of blood glucose is 20 mmol/L; there are glucosuria, obesity, and hirsutism. What pathology are these changes typical for? A. Barraquer's (Simon's) disease

  1. Adipose-genital dystrophy

  2. Cushing’s syndrome

  3. Addison’s disease

  4. Cushing’s disease*

54. A patient aged 29 had acute massive blood loss during delivery. Then the following changes developed: acute loss of weight, atrophy of skeletal muscles, thinning of skin, decrease of body temperature, hypotension, and hypoglycemia. What pathology of pituitary gland is the most possible in this case?

  1. Reye-Sheehan syndrome*

  2. Parhon’s syndrome

  3. Diabetes insipidus

  4. Adipose-genital dystrophy

  5. Pituitary dwarfism

55. A 28-years-old patient complains of flaccidity, quick mental and physical fatigue, and dyspeptic disorders. During the examination following was found out: positive TB tests, hypoglycemia, BP - 90/60 mm Hg, hyponatremia, skin pigmentation. What disease of adrenal glands underlies observed symptoms?

  1. Cushing’s syndrome

  2. Addison’s disease*

  3. Acute insufficiency of adrenal cortex

  4. Hypofunction of medullar layer of adrenal glands

  5. Conn’s syndrome

56. Which of the signs that develops in hyperthyrosis is the most important for making diagnosis?

  1. Tachycardia

  2. Subfebrile temperature

  3. Increase of basal metabolism*

  4. Increase excitability

  5. Disorder of sleep

57. A patient aged 41 complains of weakness, sweating, fever, tremor of hands, BP160/90 mm Hg. Diffuse toxic goiter was diagnosed (Graves-Basedow disease). What is the main mechanism of impairment of the function of cardio-vascular system in this disease?

  1. Decrease of tonus of sympathetic nervous system tonus

  2. Increase of tonus of sympathetic nervous system tonus*

  3. Auto immune reactions

  4. Increase of catabolism

  5. Hyperthermia

58. A girl aged 5 had the symptoms of premature sexual development, menses, growth of mammary gland, adipose deposits in the field of pelvis and femur. The most possible cause of premature sexual development is:

  1. Adrenal adenoma

  2. Hypopituitarism

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome

  4. Hyperplasia of adrenal glands

  5. Hormone- active tumor of ovaries*

59. Conn’s syndrome was diagnosed in a patient who complained of muscular weakness, increased urination (at night), and increased arterial blood pressure. What is typical for this syndrome?

  1. Increase of renin, increase of aldosterone, and increase of potassium

  2. Decrease of renin, increase of aldosterone, and increase of potassium

  3. Decrease of renin, increase of aldosterone, and decrease of potassium*

  4. Decrease of renin, decrease of aldosterone, and decrease of potassium E. Increase of renin, decrease of aldosterone, and increase of potassium

60. A female patient aged 44 complains of general malaise, large increase of body weight, growth of hair on the face, arrest of menses, BP-165/100 mm Hg. What diagnostic test will help to differentiate Cushing’s disease from Cushing’s syndrome?

  1. Level of ACTH in blood plasma*

  2. Level of cortisol in plasma

  3. Excretion of 17-oxyketosteroids with urine

  4. X-ray of the skull

  5. Number of eosinophils in blood

61. A patient aged 42 complains of sharp loss of body weight, weakness, appearance of pigmental spots on the skin and mucus membranes. Addison’s disease was diagnosed in this patient. Which of the following tests is the most important for diagnostics of Addison’s disease? A. Content of 17-oxyketosteroids in urine

  1. Level of potassium and sodium in blood plasma

  2. Tests with injection of ACTH*

  3. Level of cortisol in plasma

  4. Content of blood glucose

62. A 55-years-old man had an attack of angina pectoris which w as accompanied by a severe pain behind the breastbone and resulted in anuria. What mechanism influenced on the appearance of anuria? A. Excessive somatotropin secretion

  1. Excessive vasopressin secretion*

  2. Decrease of corticotropin secretion

  3. Vasopressin deficiency

  4. Somatotropin deficiency

63. Enlargement of thyroid gland, aloofness, increased basal metabolism, tachycardia, tremor of fingers were found out in a women aged 52. Psychic excitability was increased in her. The leading part of pathogenesis of this state is:

  1. Increase of mitochondrial membrane permeability*

  2. Negative nitrogen balance

  3. Hypocholesteremia

  4. Decrease of protein synthesis

  5. Hyperglycemia

64. Thyrotoxicosis was produced in an animal experimentally. For confirming this state it is necessary to determine the level of metabolism according to food taking and physical load. What experimental method must be used in this case?

  1. Determination of iodine content in the thyroid gland

  2. Determination of concentration of organic iodine in blood

  3. Direct calorimetry*

  4. Determination of oxygen tension in the blood

  5. Determination of the content of the gland hormone in the blood

65. Three months later after delivery female patient C., aged 30, began to complain of increase of body weight, excessive adipose deposits, mainly in the area of the neck and face, growth of hair on the upper lip. The increase of size of cella turcica was determined by X-ray examination. What pathogenic mechanism underlies determined pathology?

  1. Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids*

  2. Increase of food taking

  3. Hyposecretion of thyroxin

  4. Development of diabetes mellitus

  5. Birth of a child

66. A boy of 14 years old visited endocrinologist. His mother complains of his being behind in physical development and growth. The boy has proportional constitution, his is 104 cm tall, and his secondary sexual characters are not marked. The cause of this pathology is hyposecretion of:

  1. Gonadotropic hormone*

  2. Growth hormone

  3. All hormones of adenohypophysis

  4. ACTH

  5. Thyroid stimulating hormone

67. Patient female aged 47 was admitted to the hospital with complaints on increased nervous excitability disorder of sleep, heartbeat, pain in the heart area, and muscular weakness. Objectively: the patient is thin, has exophthalmia, tremor of hands, increase of reflexes. She has body temperature - 37.5oC, heartbeat - 150 beats per minute; at her ECG sinus tachycardia was revealed. Thyroid gland is increased. Arrhythmia in this patient develops is due to:

  1. Increase of tonus of sympathetic nervous system*

  2. Decrease of tonus of vagus nerve

  3. Intoxication

  4. Metabolic increase in myocardium

  5. Increase of catecholamine level

68. A 51-years-old male patient has been suffering from tuberculosis for 10 years. He is abusing alcohol. At last time, complaints of irritability, fast fatigability, syncope, muscular weakness, and loss of weight appear in him. At examination of the patient: hyperpigmentation of his skin; his BP is 90/60 mmHg. What is the most possible reason for disease development in this patient?

  1. Chronic alcohol intoxication

  2. Impairment of adrenal gland due to tuberculosis*

  3. Alcoholic injury of the liver

  4. Hypothalamic tumor

  5. Thyroid gland impairment

69. A woman aged 40 complains of general malaise, pain in the heart area, increase of body weight. At examination of the patient: she is 164 cm height and 104 kg weight; she has predominant deposits of fat at face, neck, shoulders, and abdomen; her BP – 165/100 mmHg; content of glucose in her blood – 7.8 mmol/L. What endocrine gland function is infringed and what direction at?

  1. Pituitary gland, basophilic adenoma, hyperfunction*

  2. Pituitary gland, eosinophilic adenoma, hyperfunction

  3. Sexual glands, hypofunction

  4. Cortex of adrenal glands, hypofunction

  5. Thyroid gland, hypofunction

70. In a patient aged 23 BP rapidly drops down to 70/40 mmHg after surgical removal of left adrenal gland. Patient has rapid, weak pulse, vomiting, and cramps; he is covered by cold sweat. What is the most possible cause for this condition?

  1. Hypertrophy of the right adrenal gland

  2. Hypofunction of adenohypophysis

  3. Atrophy of the right adrenal gland*

  4. Hyperfunction of adenohypophysis

  5. Hypofunction of neurohypophysis

71. A 17-years-old female patient, who has been ill for 6 months, complains of appearance of mustache and beard, roughness of voice, and absence of menses. At examination of the patient hirsutism and undeveloped mammal glands and sexual organs were revealed. What glands impairment has lead to this pathology?

  1. Adrenal glands*

  2. Thyroid gland

  3. Neurohypophysis

  4. Adenohypophysis

  5. Sexual glands

72. A child aged 4 lags behind at physical development, sleeps badly, and has increased irritability, thirst, and polyuria. Glucose is absent in patient’s urine. Patient has negative reaction to vasopressin injection. What is the mechanism of revealed disorders?

  1. Disturbance of realization of hormone biological activity*

  2. Impairment of neural regulation of endocrine glands

  3. Disorders of biosynthesis and secretion of hormones

  4. Disorders of neuroendocrine regulation

  5. Disorders of feedback mechanisms

73. Loss of body weight, fatigue, pulling teeth out, and coming hairs out began in a patient in several months after delivery. She often became ill. At examination of the patient: subcutaneous adipose tissue is virtually absent; BP – 90/55 mmHg; body temperature – 36.0 oC. Biochemical analysis of patient’s blood: glucose content – 3.0 mmol/L. There is increased level of growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone in her blood. What kind of pituitary functions is impaired in this patient?

  1. Pituitary dwarfism

  2. Panhypopituitarism*

  3. Acromegaly

  4. Cushing’s disease

  5. Diabetes insipidus

74. Hans Selye, author of doctrine of stress, showed that different stimuli (heat, cold, pain) always evoke standard non-specific reaction: 1) involution in thymico-lymphatic system; 2) hemorrhage acute ulcers of stomach and duodenum. Name the third compound of classical triad.

  1. Hypertrophy of adrenal cortex*

  2. Hypertrophy of beta cells of Langerhans’ islets

  3. Myocardial infarction

  4. Parodontitis

  5. Cerebral hemorrhage

75. Polyuria and polydipsia developed in a 40-years-old patient accordingly to impairment of hypothalamic-pituitary connective way. What hormone deficiency evokes this changes?

  1. Oxytocin

  2. Antidiuretic hormone*

  3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone

  4. Growth hormone

  5. Thyroid stimulating hormone

76. In a patient excessive development of bones and soft tissues of his face, enlargement of his tongue, and widened interspaces between teeth in enlarged teeth arch were found out. What changes of hormone secretion are the most possible in this patient?

  1. Elevated secretion of insulin

  2. Increased secretion of thyroxin

  3. Increased secretion of growth hormone*

  4. Reduced secretion of growth hormone

  5. Elevated secretion of vasopressin

77. A boy aged 9 is in endocrinology department because of increase bone fragility. What endocrine organ is impaired?

  1. Adrenal glands

  2. Thymus

  3. Thyroid gland

  4. Parathyroid gland*

  5. Epiphysis

78. A child has infringements of teeth enamel and dentin formation because of reduced content of calcium in his blood. What hormone deficiency may evoke these changes?

  1. Growth hormone

  2. Triiodothyronine

  3. Parathormone*

  4. Thyroxin

  5. Thyrocalcitonin

79. By X-ray examination of scull bones enlargement of cella turcica, thinned anterior inclined appendices, and destruction of different places of cella turcica were revealed. What endocrine gland tumor may lead to such bone destruction?

  1. Thyroid gland

  2. Epiphysis

  3. Adrenal gland

  4. Thymus

  5. Pituitary gland*

80. After the operation on thyroid gland tetany developed in a patient that manifested in convulsions of striped muscles. What does this complication may be connected to?

  1. Mistaken removal of parathyroid glands*

  2. Insufficient removal of thyroid tissue

  3. Hyperfunction of adrenal glands

  4. Hypofunction of adrenal glands

  5. Elevated blood content of thyroid-stimulating hormone

81. A female patient with hyperthyroidism has increased body temperature. What is the mechanism of body temperature elevation?

  1. Separation of oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation*

  2. Increase utilization of glucose by tissues

  3. Intensification of glycogenolysis

  4. Intensification of protein catabolism

  5. Elevation of oxidation of fat in liver

82. A woman has fatigue, sleepiness, apathy, worsening of memory, and edemas.

These symptoms appeared in several years after change of dwelling. “Endemic goiter” is diagnosed in this patient. What substance deficit in water and food may lead to this disease? A. Iodine*

  1. Fluoride

  2. Iron

  3. Calcium

  4. Magnesium

83. A 38-years-old patient complains of thirst (he drinks 8 liters of water daily), polyuria, loss of weight, and general malaise. He has been sick for 6 months.

Urinalysis of the patient shows: special gravity – 1.001, leukocytes – 1 to 2 in field of vision, protein – trace amount. What reason evokes the constant polyuria in this patient?

  1. Reduction of ADH production*

  2. Injury of renal glomerules

  3. Injury of renal tubules

  4. Elevation of osmotic pressure of urine

  5. Increase of oncotic pressure of urine

84. When stomatological examining the patient aged 18 the following symptoms were revealed: woman features of his face, anomalies of form of crowns in some teeth, catarrhal gingivitis, and resorption of interdental junctures. Cytological examination of mucous membrane epithelium discovers that cells contain 1 Barr’s body. What endocrine pathology are these manifestations the most probably connected to?

  1. Hypogonadism*

  2. Hypergonadism

  3. Cretinism

  4. Thyrotoxicosis

  5. Chronic hypoparathyroidism

85. A 20-years-old patient has hypoplasia of enamel and impaired formation of dentin in his teeth after surgical removal of thyroid gland. What hormone deficiency became the reason for indicated pathology?

  1. Parathormone*

  2. Thyroxin

  3. Thyroid-stimulating hormone

  4. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-releasing factor

  5. Thyrocalcitonin

86. A patient, who lives in mountain region, was admitted to the hospital with diagnosis of endemic goiter. What is characteristic for this disease?

  1. Decreasing of thyroxin and triiodothyronine synthesis*

  2. Increase of thyroid hormone production

  3. Toxic action of thyroxin and triiodothyronine

  4. Chronic hypoparathyroidism

87. A child aged 2.5 has retardation in physical development, absence of appetite, thirst, and polyuria; he sleeps badly. Sugar was not found in the patient’ urine. Which of endocrine pathologies is the reason for disorders of water-salt metabolism?

  1. Hyposecretion of antidiuretic hormone*

  2. Hypersecretion of antidiuretic hormone

  3. Secondary hyperaldosteronism

  4. Hyposecretion of growth hormone

  5. Hyposecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone

88. What pathological conditions the tumor growing from reticular zone of adrenal gland may lead to?

  1. Virilization of female organism*

  2. Elevation in content of glucocorticoids in blood

  3. Tachycardia

  4. Elevation of content of mineralocorticoids in blood

89. What changes result from separation in oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation?

  1. Elevation in heat production*

  2. Decrease of free oxidation part

  3. Decrease in heat production

  4. Enhancement of functional activity of organs

  5. Increase in ATP production

90. What changes in adult organism may be evoked by hypersecretion of growth hormone?

  1. Development of diabetes mellitus*

  2. Intensification of lipolysis

  3. Intensification of urea production

  4. Reduction of transport of amino acids to the cell

  5. Increase in content of calcium in blood

91. A 40-years-old patient complains of decreased capability of working, sleepiness, sensitivity to cold, fragility and coming out of hairs, dryness of skin, and edema of face and extremities. There is no formation of pit under the pressing at the anterior surface of patient’s calves. Patient has slow tendon reflexes and bradycardia. What infringement do these changes result from?

  1. Hypothyroidism*

  2. Adrenal insufficiency

  3. Hypoparathyroidism

  4. Vitamin C deficiency

  5. Iron deficiency

92. Influence of unfavorable psycho-emotional factor upon a patient results in development of non-specific pathological process, which course consists of 3 stages: 1) anxiety reaction; 2) stage of resistance; 3) stage of exhaustion. This process involves system hypothalamus – pituitary – adrenal cortex. What is the name for this process? A. Stress*

  1. Parabiosis

  2. Adaptation

  3. Compensation

  4. Dominance

93. A doctor suspects the hypothyroid goiter in a patient with enlarged thyroid gland.

What sign has a decisive importance for establishing the diagnosis?

  1. Decrease of basal metabolism*

  2. Bradycardia

  3. Edemas

  4. Arterial hypotension

  5. Hypodynamia

94. Arterial hypotension, muscular weakness, and periodic convulsions appear in the patient with hepatic cirrhosis. Content of sodium is increased and content of potassium is decreased in patient’s blood. What kind of endocrine disorders underlies this symptoms?

  1. Secondary hyperaldosteronism*

  2. Hypopituitarism

  3. Primary hyperaldosteronism

  4. Hyperpituitarism

  5. Hypoaldosteronism

95. Prolonged intake of mineralocorticoids led to development of muscular weakness in a patient. What gives rise to these symptoms?

  1. Hypokalemia*

  2. Hyperkalemia

  3. Hypernatremia

  4. Hyponatremia

  5. Hypervolemia

96. What hormone increased secretion causes becoming thin at the period of enhanced growth?

  1. Growth hormone*

  2. Prolactin

  3. Glucagon

  4. Progesterone

  5. Insulin

97. What kind of endocrine disorders lead to obesity?

  1. Hypercortisolism*

  2. Hypofunction of adrenal glands

  3. Hyperparathyroidism

  4. Hypergonadism

  5. Hyperaldosteronism

98. A 50-years-old female patient, who was operated on thyroid gland for diffuse toxic goiter, begins complaining that she is spiritless and slow, has fast fatigability, increased working ability, sleepiness, worsening of memory, and increasing of body weight. At examination the patient has dry skin, edematous face, and striped nails with broken edges. What is your assumable diagnosis?

  1. Myxedema*

  2. Cushing’s disease

  3. Acromegaly

  4. Obesity

  5. Thyrotoxicosis

99. A 25-years-old male patient, who endured influenza, complains of increased thirst (he drinks 5 to 6 liters of water daily), frequent abundant urination, and loss of body weight. Patient has dry mucous membranes and dry skin with reduced turgor.

Urinalysis of this patient displays: urine is colorless, its special gravity – 1.000-1.004, leukocytes and erythrocytes – 1 to 2 in field of vision. What pathology does this patient suffers from?

  1. Diabetes insipidus*

  2. Diabetes mellitus

  3. Conn’s disease

  4. Pheochromocytoma

  5. Secondary hyperaldosteronism

100. When prophylactic examining of the first-year pupils in two of them lag in

their height by 2-3 sigma deviations was indicated. No another disorders were revealed. What hormone deficiency could lead to this pathology?

  1. Growth hormone*

  2. Sexual hormones

  3. Insulin

  4. Thyroid hormones

  5. Glucocorticoids

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