База тестів крок-1 з патофізіології (пмк-1)

Дата конвертації25.01.2021
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Topic 8. Pathophysiology of cell.
1. Enzyme trypsin is released by the pancreas as a non-active proenzyme trypsinogen. What is the mechanism of proenzyme trypsinogen activation?

  1. Allosteric activation

  2. Elevation of de novo synthesis at genetic level

  3. Change of quaternary structure of molecule

  4. Phosphorylation of molecule

  5. Restricted proteolysis *

2. Necrosis of cells develops after they were exposed to high dose of ultraviolet irradiation. What reactions underlie these changes?

  1. Hydrolysis of proteins

  2. Hydrolysis of lipids

  3. Decarboxylation of amino acids

  4. Peroxidation of lipids *

  5. Oxidation of carbohydrates

3. Increase in levels of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate

Aminotransferase (AST) was found during examination of patient’s blood serum. What changes in organism at cellular level lead to this situation?

  1. Disturbances of intercellular interactions

  2. Disorders of enzyme systems of cells

  3. Impairment of energy supply of cells

  4. Destruction of cells *

  5. Damage of genetic apparatus of cells

4. Increase in activity of Lactate Dehydrogenase was found during examination of patient’s blood serum. What changes at cellular level lead to such disturbances?

  1. Damage of plasmatic membranes *

  2. Disorders of energy supply

  3. Disturbances of intercellular interactions

  4. Damage of genetic apparatus of cells

  5. Inhibition of enzyme systems

5. Cell of an experimental animal was exposed to X-rays. Protein fragments were formed in cytoplasm as a result. What cellular organelles participate in their utilization?

  1. Lysosomes *

  2. Golgi apparatus

  3. Ribosomes

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum

  5. Cell center

6. Activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) sharply increases in blood plasma at hepatitis and myocardial infarction. What are the reasons for increase in their activity in blood?

  1. Damage of cell membranes and release of enzymes to the blood *

  2. Augmentation of enzyme activity by hormones

  3. Pyridoxine deficiency

  4. Increase in rate of amino acids synthesis in tissues

  5. Increase in rate of amino acids decay in tissues

7. Tissue culture was exposed to radiation. Nucleoli in cell nuclei were damaged. What organelles resumption becomes problematic in cell cytoplasm?

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum

  2. Ribosomes *

  3. Lysosomes

  4. Golgi apparatus

  5. Microtubules

8. Activation of universal membrane structure injuring mechanism occurs at reperfusion syndrome. This mechanism is referred to as

  1. Beta-oxidation of lipids

  2. Oxidation of cytochromes

  3. Microsomal oxidation

  4. Knoop-Lienen cycle

  5. Peroxidation of lipids *

9. It was established that pneumonia was caused by viruses in a 5-year-old child. What is the leading mechanism of cell injury in this pathology?

  1. Protein

  2. Electrolyte-osmotic

  3. Nucleic *

  4. Lipid

  5. Calcic

10. Destruction of cartilage cells and disorder of their functions are observed in a patient with rheumatism. Which of cellular organelles takes active part in this pathological process?

  1. Ribosomes

  2. Microtubules

  3. Lysosomes *

  4. Golgi apparatus

  5. Cellular center

11. Which ions accumulation in cytoplasm of muscular cells accounts for stable constriction of myofibrils?

  1. Calcium *

  2. Sodium

  3. Potassium

  4. Magnesium

  5. Hydrogen

12. What is the direct reason for disorders of calcium-ions extraction from cytoplasm during cell injury? A. ATP deficiency *

  1. Acidosis

  2. Increase of osmotic pressure in cytoplasm

  3. Increase of permeability of cell membranes

  4. Denaturation of proteins

13. At the phase, preceding diastolic relaxation of myocardium, concentration of calcium ions sharply increases in sarcoplasm, and uncombined calcium is virtually absent from sarcoplasm at diastole. Which of following structures participates in accumulation of calcium?

  1. Mitochondria *

  2. Lysosomes

  3. Ribosomes

  4. Golgi apparatus

  5. Nucleoli

14. During study of cell structure by students the question appears “What are biological membranes by their structure?”

  1. Bimolecular lipid layer with protein constituents *

  2. Bimolecular lipid layer

  3. Monomolecular lipid layer

  4. Bimolecular protein layer

  5. Bimolecular protein layer with lipid constituents

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