Topic 7. Hypoxia 1. A man constantly lives in mountains. What changes of blood test indices can found in him?
Increased red blood cells number *
Decreased reticulocytes count
Decreased color index
Appearance of erythroblasts in blood
Decreased hemoglobin content
2. After autopsy a forensic medical expert established that death of 20-year-old woman resulted from cyanide poisoning. What process disorder caused the death?
Oxygen transport by hemoglobin
Tissue respiration *
3. Increased number of erythrocytes in blood test was revealed in people residing in village, which is situated in mountains at the altitude of 3000 m. What is the reason for changes in their blood?
Increased vitamin B12 synthesis
Change of spleen function
Increased erythropoietin production *
Increased circulating blood volume
4. The group of patients from sanatorium went to the mountains for excursion. Tachycardia and breathlessness developed in part of them in two hours after beginning of excursion. Which type of hypoxia do those disturbances result from?
5. A driver slept in garage in a car with working engine. When he woke he had headache and later vomiting began in him. What compound formation in blood caused this state?
6. Which sportsman will have highest content of lactic acid in the blood?
Who just had run 100 m
Who just had run 5000 m *
Who put the shot
Jumper with pole
7. A 40-years-old man took cyanic potassium by mistake. He died instantly. What mitochondrial enzymes do cyanides block?
Cytochrome Oxydase *
8. Pain in muscles appears after physical exertion in people, who move a little (have hypodynamia) for a long time. What is the possible reason for this?
A. Decreased content of lipids in muscles B. Increased content of ATP in muscles
Accumulation of creatinine in muscles
Accumulation of lactic acid in muscles *
Enhanced decay of muscle proteins
9. The number of erythrocytes in alpinist’s blood before going to mountains is 4,5x1012/L. What changes of erythrocytes number can develop at the altitude of 2500 m above sea level? A. Absolute erythropenia
Absolute erythrocytosis *
There won’t be any changes
10. Dyspnea, increased heart beat rate, weaken of attention, foolishness occurred in sportsmen without acclimatization during the ascent to the altitude of 3000 m. Then weakness and disturbance of muscular coordination occurred. What was the reason for that condition? A. Circulatory hypoxia
Hypoxic hypoxia *
11. Environmental pollution by nitric compounds occurs after accident at a chemical factory. People, who live at this region, have sharp weakness, headache, breathlessness, and giddiness. What does hypoxia result from?
C. Methemoglobin formation *
12. Total respiratory insufficiency was noticed on examination of blood gases partial pressure in a patient with bronchial asthma. What is the reason of respiratory hypoxia in this case?
Decreased ventilation *
13. Total respiratory insufficiency developed in a patient with lung disease. It manifested by decreased pO2 and increased pCO2 in patient’s blood. What caused development of respiratory hypoxia and pronounced respiratory insufficiency?
Frequent shallow respiration *
Oxygen deficit in inspired air
Uneven ventilation of the lungs
Functional blood shunting in the lungs
14. Disorders of oxyhemoglobin formation have led to development of hemic hypoxia.
What are the reasons for hemic hypoxia development?
Methemoglobin formation *
Inhibition of dehydrogenases
Activation of glutathione peroxidase
Deficiency of riboflavin
15. Which factors increase hypoxic injury of a cell under hypoxic conditions?
Inhibitors of proteolysis
16. Symptoms of poisoning such as sharp weakness, dizziness, headache, vomiting, dyspnea, tachycardia, cyanosis of lips, ears, distal phalanges of fingers occurred in one child from group of children, who had eaten sweet juicy watermelon. Laboratory test of watermelon showed high level of nitrates. What is leading mechanism in pathogenesis of only one child poisoning? A. Superoxide dismutase deficiency
Cytochrome oxidase blockade
Glutathione peroxidase deficiency
Methemoglobin reductase deficiency *
17. A man has been living high in mountains for a long time. What changes in his blood would develop?
Increase in number of leukocytes
Increase in diameter of blood vessels C. Decrease in number of leukocytes
Increase in quantity of hemoglobin *
18. Tachypnea and hypopnea developed in tourists, which had climbed to the altitude of 3000 m. These changes are consequence of stimulation of
Chemoreceptors of carotid sinus *
Mechanoreceptors of pulmonary alveoli
Baroreceptors of arch of aorta
Neurons of the cerebral cortex
Motoneurons of spinal cord
19. Cyanosis, swelling of lower extremities, dyspnea occurred in a 60-year-old patient suffering from heart failure. Long-term adaptation of organism to hypoxia, occurring in that condition, can be supplied by A. Blood outlet from the depots
Increased hemopoietic activity *
Opening of non-functioning capillaries
Increased blood oxygenation
20. A dog has poisoning by unknown substance that caused its immediate death because of oxidation of cytochromes. What is that substance?
Potassium cyanide *
21. Gaseous alkalosis developed in a group of alpinists due to rise to the Everest’s top. So, carbon dioxide partial pressure in their arterial blood makes up
30 mmHg *
22. Hemic hypoxia occurred in a patient. It is accompanied by methemoglobin accumulation and development of metabolic acidosis. Which substance accumulation leads to disturbance of acid-base balance?
23. During keeping salvage operations, several miners were taken out from the mine. They were unconscious but without any visible damages. Air in mine had considerable amounts of methane. Which type of hypoxia developed in those people?
24. A 29-year-old patient with carbon monoxide poisoning was admitted to the hospital. He had signs of severe hypoxia: pronounced dyspnea, cyanosis and tachycardia. Which changes of hemoglobin take place during carbon monoxide poisoning?
Carboxyhemoglobin formation *
25. A 54-year-old patient was admitted to hospital in hypoxic state, developed due to aspiration of vomit mass. Blood test was taken after the treatment of patient. Does erythrocytes number in peripheral blood change in the initial phase of hypoxia?
Increase due to outlet of the blood from depots *
No change in initial phase
Decrease due to hemolysis of erythrocytes
Decrease due to depot of blood
Increase due to increase of hemopoiesis
26. A patient had course of dosing hypoxic trainings as a part of treatment of hypertensive disease. The most considerable cellular adaptive mechanism that begins working under such treatment is A. Cellular hypertrophy *
Defense of cell membrane
Correction of ions transport
Mobilization of plastic reserve
Decrease in functional activity of cells
27. A patient came to a dentist with complaints of prolonged bleeding from his gums, reclining of teeth. Paradontosis was diagnosed. Which type of hypoxia developed in the patient?
28. Dyspnea, cyanosis of mucous membranes of the lips, moderate tachycardia (pulse rate of 80 beats per minute) suddenly occurred in a patient during the treatment of carious tooth. Which type of hypoxia developed in this patient?
A. Tissue B. Hemic
29. Sensitivity of different tissues to oxygen deficit depends on their metabolic rate, power of glycolytic system, reserve of ATP and ADP, etc. Which system is in the worst conditions from these points of view?
Nervous system *
30. A patient addressed to the doctor with complaints of the attack of breathlessness and dizziness. It was revealed that he worked at the chemical factory, producing senile
acid. Those signs can be explained by disturbance of enzyme
Cytochrome oxydase * C. Catalase
31. Decrease in adenylic nucleotides ATP/ADP ratio leads to the increase in glycolysis in tissues under hypoxic conditions. Which reaction get active in this situation?
Lactate dehydrogenase-depended *
32. A child has been brought to the admissions office. He had nitrates poisoning symptoms such as cyanosis, dyspnea, and cramps. What is the mechanism of those symptoms development? A. Oxyhemoglobin formation
Reduce hemoglobin formation
Methemoglobin formation *
33. Sense of muscular weakness, dyspnea, and tachycardia appeared in a tourist at the altitude of 5200 m. What was the reason for appearance of these symptoms?
Decrease in oxygen partial pressure in expired air *
Decrease in atmospheric pressure
Increase in carbon dioxide partial pressure in patient’s blood
34. A fireman with signs of carbon monoxide poisoning has been brought from the place of accident. Which type of hypoxia is more possible in that situation?
Hemic hypoxia *
Stagnant type of circulatory hypoxia
35. A 60-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with carbon monoxide poisoning.
What is mechanism of disturbances that man has?
Inactivation of hemoglobin respiratory function *
Insufficiency of lungs ventilation
Disturbance of blood circulation in the organs and tissues
Decrease in partial pressure of oxygen in alveoli
Increase in adrenaline secretion
36. Patient has microanisocytosis and poikilocytosis, decreased erythrocytes number, hemoglobin levels, color index, concentration of iron in serum. These changes were accompanied by development of hypoxia. It name is:
37. Which reason can lead to hypoxia of exogenous type?
Acute bleeding *
Insufficiency of ventilation
Decreased partial pressure in inspired air
38. A patient has been suffering from disease of cardiovascular system for a long time. Chronic blood circulation insufficiency developed in him eventually. Which mechanism of long-term adaptation to hypoxia takes place in this patient?
Activation of hemopoiesis *
Mobilization of blood from depots
Interorganic redistribution of blood circulation
39. A patient has been taken to resuscitation department. Considerable content of sulfhemoglobin was revealed in his blood. Which type of hypoxia does patient have?
40. Alpinists started complaining of breathlessness, palpitation, headache, dizziness, and ringing in their ears during climbing to mountain at the altitude of 5000 m. Which pathologic factor caused these symptoms?
Increased oxygen capacity of blood
41. Depressurizing of an airplane cabin happened due to emergency conditions at the altitude of 5000 m. What is the main mechanism of damages inflicted on the people that were in the airplane? A. Hypoxic hypoxia *
42. Symptoms of hypoxia appeared in a patient after the course of treatment with amidopyrine and sulfanilamides. What is the reason for development of this type of hypoxia?
Formation of methemoglobin *
Formation of carboxyhemoglobin
Formation of nitroxyhemoglobin
Formation of carbhemoglobin
Formation of oxyhemoglobin
43. After an accident in a coal-mine, miners were complaining of headache, dizziness, tiredness, glimmer in front of their eyes, tachycardia. Which type of hypoxia did they have? A. Hypoxic *
44. Signs of hypoxia such as dyspnea, tachycardia, and cyanosis of visible mucous membranes appeared in a patient with myocardial infarction. Development of hypoxia connected with
Decrease in velocity of blood flow *
Decrease in erythrocytes number
Decrease in content of hemoglobin
Insufficiency of blood oxygenation
Difficult oxyhemoglobin dissociation
45. A man has been brought in hospital by ambulance. He was unconscious because of carbon monoxide poisoning. What substance accumulation in the blood underlies this condition?
46. A 65-year-old patient suffers from aortic valve stenosis. She has symptoms of heart failure such as dyspnea, cyanosis, and edema that appeared after viral infection. She was admitted to the therapeutic department. Which type of hypoxia is in the patient? A. Circulatory *
47. A 70-year-old patient underwent medical treatment for ischemic heart disease, heart failure in cardiological department. Which type of hypoxia was in the patient? A. Circulatory *
48. A 13-year-old girl undergoes treatment for iron-deficiency anemia in hematological department. Which type of hypoxia does this patient have?
49. A 56-year-old woman suffers from thyrotoxicosis for a long time. Which type of hypoxia can develop in this patient?
50. Group of tourists ascended to the altitude of 4200 m. Three alpinists complained of headache, pain in their ears and frontal sinuses, somnolence, considerable muscular weakness, irritability during the ascent. The possible reason for appearance of these symptoms was