База тестів крок-1 з патофізіології (пмк-1)



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1-E, 2-D, 3-A, 4-A, 5-D, 6-B, 7-A, 8-D, 9-E, 10-E, 11-E, 12-B, 13-D, 14-B, 15-A, 16E, 17-B, 18-E, 19-C, 20-A, 21-A, 22-A, 23-D, 24-D, 25-C, 26-A, 27-A, 28-D, 29-A,

30-А, 31-А, 32-А, 33-А, 34-А, 35-А, 36-А, 37-А.

Topic 7. Hypoxia
1. A man constantly lives in mountains. What changes of blood test indices can found in him?


  1. Increased red blood cells number *

  2. Decreased reticulocytes count

  3. Decreased color index

  4. Appearance of erythroblasts in blood

  5. Decreased hemoglobin content

2. After autopsy a forensic medical expert established that death of 20-year-old woman resulted from cyanide poisoning. What process disorder caused the death?



  1. Oxygen transport by hemoglobin

  2. Tissue respiration *

  3. Hemoglobin synthesis

  4. Urea synthesis

  5. Oxidative phosphorylation

3. Increased number of erythrocytes in blood test was revealed in people residing in village, which is situated in mountains at the altitude of 3000 m. What is the reason for changes in their blood?



  1. Increased vitamin B12 synthesis

  2. Blood clotting

  3. Change of spleen function

  4. Increased erythropoietin production *

  5. Increased circulating blood volume

4. The group of patients from sanatorium went to the mountains for excursion. Tachycardia and breathlessness developed in part of them in two hours after beginning of excursion. Which type of hypoxia do those disturbances result from?



  1. Hemic

  2. Hypoxic *

  3. Respiratory

  4. Tissue

  5. Circulatory

5. A driver slept in garage in a car with working engine. When he woke he had headache and later vomiting began in him. What compound formation in blood caused this state?



  1. Carbhemoglobin

  2. Methemoglobin

  3. Carboxyhemoglobin *

  4. Desoxyhemoglobin

  5. Oxyhemoglobin

6. Which sportsman will have highest content of lactic acid in the blood?



  1. Weight-lifter

  2. Who just had run 100 m

  3. Who just had run 5000 m *

  4. Who put the shot

  5. Jumper with pole

7. A 40-years-old man took cyanic potassium by mistake. He died instantly. What mitochondrial enzymes do cyanides block?



  1. NAD-dependent Dehydrogenases

  2. Cytochrome Oxydase *

  3. Cytochrome B

  4. Cytochrome C

  5. FAD-dependent enzymes

8. Pain in muscles appears after physical exertion in people, who move a little (have hypodynamia) for a long time. What is the possible reason for this?

A. Decreased content of lipids in muscles B. Increased content of ATP in muscles


  1. Accumulation of creatinine in muscles

  2. Accumulation of lactic acid in muscles *

  3. Enhanced decay of muscle proteins

9. The number of erythrocytes in alpinist’s blood before going to mountains is 4,5x1012/L. What changes of erythrocytes number can develop at the altitude of 2500 m above sea level? A. Absolute erythropenia



  1. Absolute erythrocytosis *

  2. Relative erythropenia

  3. Relative erythrocytosis

  4. There won’t be any changes

10. Dyspnea, increased heart beat rate, weaken of attention, foolishness occurred in sportsmen without acclimatization during the ascent to the altitude of 3000 m. Then weakness and disturbance of muscular coordination occurred. What was the reason for that condition? A. Circulatory hypoxia



  1. Hypoxic hypoxia *

  2. Respiratory hypoxia

  3. Hemic hypoxia

  4. Hypercapnia

11. Environmental pollution by nitric compounds occurs after accident at a chemical factory. People, who live at this region, have sharp weakness, headache, breathlessness, and giddiness. What does hypoxia result from?



  1. Cytochrome Oxidase inactivation

  2. Dehydrogenases suppression

  1. Carboxyhemoglobin formation

  2. Decreased function of FAD-dependent enzymes

C. Methemoglobin formation *
12. Total respiratory insufficiency was noticed on examination of blood gases partial pressure in a patient with bronchial asthma. What is the reason of respiratory hypoxia in this case?

  1. Increased perfusion

  2. Decreased diffusion

  3. Increased ventilation

  4. Decreased ventilation *

  5. Increased diffusion

13. Total respiratory insufficiency developed in a patient with lung disease. It manifested by decreased pO2 and increased pCO2 in patient’s blood. What caused development of respiratory hypoxia and pronounced respiratory insufficiency?



  1. Excessive hyperventilation

  2. Frequent shallow respiration *

  3. Oxygen deficit in inspired air

  4. Uneven ventilation of the lungs

  5. Functional blood shunting in the lungs

14. Disorders of oxyhemoglobin formation have led to development of hemic hypoxia.

What are the reasons for hemic hypoxia development?


  1. Methemoglobin formation *

  2. Inhibition of dehydrogenases

  3. Pronounced polycythemia

  4. Activation of glutathione peroxidase

  5. Deficiency of riboflavin

15. Which factors increase hypoxic injury of a cell under hypoxic conditions?



  1. Quinone derivations

  2. Inhibitors of proteolysis

  3. Glucocorticoids

  4. Catecholamines *

  5. Glutathione peroxidase

16. Symptoms of poisoning such as sharp weakness, dizziness, headache, vomiting, dyspnea, tachycardia, cyanosis of lips, ears, distal phalanges of fingers occurred in one child from group of children, who had eaten sweet juicy watermelon. Laboratory test of watermelon showed high level of nitrates. What is leading mechanism in pathogenesis of only one child poisoning? A. Superoxide dismutase deficiency



  1. Cytochrome oxidase blockade

  2. Glutathione peroxidase deficiency

  3. Methemoglobin reductase deficiency *

  4. Catalase deficiency

17. A man has been living high in mountains for a long time. What changes in his blood would develop?



  1. Increase in number of leukocytes

  2. Increase in diameter of blood vessels C. Decrease in number of leukocytes

  1. Increase in quantity of hemoglobin *

  2. Rare pulse

18. Tachypnea and hypopnea developed in tourists, which had climbed to the altitude of 3000 m. These changes are consequence of stimulation of



  1. Chemoreceptors of carotid sinus *

  2. Mechanoreceptors of pulmonary alveoli

  3. Baroreceptors of arch of aorta

  4. Neurons of the cerebral cortex

  5. Motoneurons of spinal cord

19. Cyanosis, swelling of lower extremities, dyspnea occurred in a 60-year-old patient suffering from heart failure. Long-term adaptation of organism to hypoxia, occurring in that condition, can be supplied by A. Blood outlet from the depots



  1. Increased hemopoietic activity *

  2. Opening of non-functioning capillaries

  3. Tachycardia

  4. Increased blood oxygenation

20. A dog has poisoning by unknown substance that caused its immediate death because of oxidation of cytochromes. What is that substance?



  1. Potassium chloride

  2. Potassium cyanide *

  3. Potassium sulfate

  4. Potassium orotate

  5. Potassium permanganate

21. Gaseous alkalosis developed in a group of alpinists due to rise to the Everest’s top. So, carbon dioxide partial pressure in their arterial blood makes up



  1. 40 mmHg

  2. 50 mmHg

  3. 30 mmHg *

  4. 60 mmHg

  5. 70 mmHg

22. Hemic hypoxia occurred in a patient. It is accompanied by methemoglobin accumulation and development of metabolic acidosis. Which substance accumulation leads to disturbance of acid-base balance?



  1. Sulfates

  2. Lactates *

  3. Phosphates

  4. Hydrocarbonates

  5. Hydroxybutyrates

23. During keeping salvage operations, several miners were taken out from the mine. They were unconscious but without any visible damages. Air in mine had considerable amounts of methane. Which type of hypoxia developed in those people?



  1. Hypoxic *

  2. Hemic

  3. Circulatory

  4. Tissue

  5. Respiratory

24. A 29-year-old patient with carbon monoxide poisoning was admitted to the hospital. He had signs of severe hypoxia: pronounced dyspnea, cyanosis and tachycardia. Which changes of hemoglobin take place during carbon monoxide poisoning?



  1. Methemoglobin formation

  2. Carboxyhemoglobin formation *

  3. Carbhemoglobin formation

  4. Sulfhemoglobin formation

  5. Oxyhemoglobin inactivation

25. A 54-year-old patient was admitted to hospital in hypoxic state, developed due to aspiration of vomit mass. Blood test was taken after the treatment of patient. Does erythrocytes number in peripheral blood change in the initial phase of hypoxia?



  1. Increase due to outlet of the blood from depots *

  2. No change in initial phase

  3. Decrease due to hemolysis of erythrocytes

  4. Decrease due to depot of blood

  5. Increase due to increase of hemopoiesis

26. A patient had course of dosing hypoxic trainings as a part of treatment of hypertensive disease. The most considerable cellular adaptive mechanism that begins working under such treatment is A. Cellular hypertrophy *



  1. Defense of cell membrane

  2. Correction of ions transport

  3. Mobilization of plastic reserve

  4. Decrease in functional activity of cells

27. A patient came to a dentist with complaints of prolonged bleeding from his gums, reclining of teeth. Paradontosis was diagnosed. Which type of hypoxia developed in the patient?



  1. Hemic

  2. Circulatory

  3. Respiratory

  4. Tissue *

  5. Hypoxic

28. Dyspnea, cyanosis of mucous membranes of the lips, moderate tachycardia (pulse rate of 80 beats per minute) suddenly occurred in a patient during the treatment of carious tooth. Which type of hypoxia developed in this patient?

A. Tissue B. Hemic


  1. Circulatory *

  2. Respiratory

  3. Hypoxic

29. Sensitivity of different tissues to oxygen deficit depends on their metabolic rate, power of glycolytic system, reserve of ATP and ADP, etc. Which system is in the worst conditions from these points of view?



  1. Nervous system *

  2. Cardiovascular system

  3. Respiratory system

  4. Gastrointestinal system

  5. Urinary system

30. A patient addressed to the doctor with complaints of the attack of breathlessness and dizziness. It was revealed that he worked at the chemical factory, producing senile

acid. Those signs can be explained by disturbance of enzyme


  1. Succinate dehydrogenase

  2. Cytochrome oxydase * C. Catalase

  1. Lactate dehydrogenase

  2. Pyruvate dehydrogenase

31. Decrease in adenylic nucleotides ATP/ADP ratio leads to the increase in glycolysis in tissues under hypoxic conditions. Which reaction get active in this situation?



  1. Triosephosphate isomerase-depended

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase-depended *

  3. Aldolase-depended

  4. Endolase-depended

  5. Phosphofructokinase-depended

32. A child has been brought to the admissions office. He had nitrates poisoning symptoms such as cyanosis, dyspnea, and cramps. What is the mechanism of those symptoms development? A. Oxyhemoglobin formation



  1. Reduce hemoglobin formation

  2. Carbhemoglobin formation

  3. Methemoglobin formation *

  4. Carboxyhemoglobin formation

33. Sense of muscular weakness, dyspnea, and tachycardia appeared in a tourist at the altitude of 5200 m. What was the reason for appearance of these symptoms?



  1. Decrease in oxygen partial pressure in expired air *

  2. Decrease in atmospheric pressure

  3. Increase in carbon dioxide partial pressure in patient’s blood

  4. Gaseous embolism

  5. Air embolism

34. A fireman with signs of carbon monoxide poisoning has been brought from the place of accident. Which type of hypoxia is more possible in that situation?



  1. Hemic hypoxia *

  2. Ischemic hypoxia

  3. Stagnant type of circulatory hypoxia

  4. Hypoxic hypoxia

  5. Respiratory hypoxia

35. A 60-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with carbon monoxide poisoning.

What is mechanism of disturbances that man has?


  1. Inactivation of hemoglobin respiratory function *

  2. Insufficiency of lungs ventilation

  3. Disturbance of blood circulation in the organs and tissues

  4. Decrease in partial pressure of oxygen in alveoli

  5. Increase in adrenaline secretion

36. Patient has microanisocytosis and poikilocytosis, decreased erythrocytes number, hemoglobin levels, color index, concentration of iron in serum. These changes were accompanied by development of hypoxia. It name is:



  1. Hemic *

  2. Hypoxic

  3. Circulatory

  4. Tissue

  5. Respiratory

37. Which reason can lead to hypoxia of exogenous type?



  1. Acute bleeding *

  2. Air embolism

  3. Gaseous embolism

  4. Insufficiency of ventilation

  5. Decreased partial pressure in inspired air

38. A patient has been suffering from disease of cardiovascular system for a long time. Chronic blood circulation insufficiency developed in him eventually. Which mechanism of long-term adaptation to hypoxia takes place in this patient?



  1. Activation of hemopoiesis *

  2. Tachypnea

  3. Tachycardia

  4. Mobilization of blood from depots

  5. Interorganic redistribution of blood circulation

39. A patient has been taken to resuscitation department. Considerable content of sulfhemoglobin was revealed in his blood. Which type of hypoxia does patient have?



  1. Hemic *

  2. Respiratory

  3. Circulatory

  4. Tissue

  5. Exogenous

40. Alpinists started complaining of breathlessness, palpitation, headache, dizziness, and ringing in their ears during climbing to mountain at the altitude of 5000 m. Which pathologic factor caused these symptoms?



  1. Hypoxemia *

  2. Hypokaliemia

  3. Increased oxygen capacity of blood

  4. Lactacidemia

  5. Hypothermia

41. Depressurizing of an airplane cabin happened due to emergency conditions at the altitude of 5000 m. What is the main mechanism of damages inflicted on the people that were in the airplane? A. Hypoxic hypoxia *



  1. Gaseous embolism

  2. Tissue embolism

  3. Respiratory hypoxia

  4. Circulatory hypoxia

42. Symptoms of hypoxia appeared in a patient after the course of treatment with amidopyrine and sulfanilamides. What is the reason for development of this type of hypoxia?



  1. Formation of methemoglobin *

  2. Formation of carboxyhemoglobin

  3. Formation of nitroxyhemoglobin

  4. Formation of carbhemoglobin

  5. Formation of oxyhemoglobin

43. After an accident in a coal-mine, miners were complaining of headache, dizziness, tiredness, glimmer in front of their eyes, tachycardia. Which type of hypoxia did they have? A. Hypoxic *



  1. Circulatory

  2. Respiratory

  3. Tissue

  4. Hemic

44. Signs of hypoxia such as dyspnea, tachycardia, and cyanosis of visible mucous membranes appeared in a patient with myocardial infarction. Development of hypoxia connected with



  1. Decrease in velocity of blood flow *

  2. Decrease in erythrocytes number

  3. Decrease in content of hemoglobin

  4. Insufficiency of blood oxygenation

  5. Difficult oxyhemoglobin dissociation

45. A man has been brought in hospital by ambulance. He was unconscious because of carbon monoxide poisoning. What substance accumulation in the blood underlies this condition?



  1. Carboxyhemoglobin *

  2. Oxyhemoglobin

  3. Desoxyhemoglobin

  4. Methemoglobin

  5. Carbhemoglobin

46. A 65-year-old patient suffers from aortic valve stenosis. She has symptoms of heart failure such as dyspnea, cyanosis, and edema that appeared after viral infection. She was admitted to the therapeutic department. Which type of hypoxia is in the patient? A. Circulatory *



  1. Hemic

  2. Hypoxic

  3. Respiratory

  4. Tissue

47. A 70-year-old patient underwent medical treatment for ischemic heart disease, heart failure in cardiological department. Which type of hypoxia was in the patient? A. Circulatory *



  1. Hemic

  2. Respiratory

  3. Tissue

  4. Mixed

48. A 13-year-old girl undergoes treatment for iron-deficiency anemia in hematological department. Which type of hypoxia does this patient have?



  1. Hemic *

  2. Circulatory

  3. Tissue

  4. Respiratory

  5. Mixed

49. A 56-year-old woman suffers from thyrotoxicosis for a long time. Which type of hypoxia can develop in this patient?



  1. Tissue *

  2. Hemic

  3. Circulatory

  4. Respiratory

  5. Mixed

50. Group of tourists ascended to the altitude of 4200 m. Three alpinists complained of headache, pain in their ears and frontal sinuses, somnolence, considerable muscular weakness, irritability during the ascent. The possible reason for appearance of these symptoms was



  1. Altitude sickness *

  2. Hyperbaric oxygenation

  3. Caisson disease

  4. Gaseous saturation in blood

  5. Altitude decompression




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