База тестів крок-1 з патофізіології (пмк-1)



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Test 175

A 42-year-old man is concerned about a darkly pigmented “mole” on the back of his hand. The lesion has enlarged and bled during the past month. On physical examination, there is a slightly raised, darkly pigmented, 1.2-cm lesion on the dorsum of the right hand. The lesion is completely excised. Microscopically, a malignant melanoma is present. Which of the following factors presents the greatest risk for the development of this neoplasm?



  1. Smoking tobacco

  2. Ultraviolet radiation

  3. Chemotherapy

  4. Asbestos exposure

  5. Allergy to latex


Test 176

A 35-year-old male living in a southern region of Africa presents with increasing abdominal pain and jaundice. He has worked as a farmer for many years, and sometimes his grain has become moldy. Physical examination reveals a large mass involving the right side of his liver, and a biopsy specimen from this mass confirms the diagnosis of liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma). The pathogenesis of this tumor involves which of the following substances?



  1. Aflatoxin B1

  2. Direct-acting alkylating agents

  3. Vinyl chloride

  4. Azo dyes

  5. β-naphthylamine





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