База тестів крок-1 з патофізіології (пмк-1)



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Test 130

The cardinal sign of inflammation called rubor is mainly the result of



  1. Decreased interstitial hydrostatic pressure

  2. Decreased vascular permeability of capillaries

  3. Increased vascular permeability of venules

  4. Vasoconstriction of muscular arteries

  5. Vasodilation of arterioles


Test 131

During the early stages of the inflammatory response, histamine-induced increased vascular permeability is most likely to occur in



  1. Arteries

  2. Precapillary arterioles

  3. Capillaries

  4. Postcapillary venules

  5. Veins


Test 132

Which one of the listed statements best describes the process called chemotaxis?



  1. Abnormal fusion of phagosomes to primary lysosomes

  2. Attachment of chemicals to extracellular material to increase phagocytosis

  3. Dilation of blood vessels by chemotherapeutic drugs

  4. Movement of cells toward a certain site or source

  5. Transmigration of cells from blood vessels into tissue


Test 133

A 3-year-old boy presents with recurrent bacterial and fungal infections primarily involving his skin and respiratory tract. Physical examination reveals the presence of oculocutaneous albinism. Examination of peripheral blood smear reveals large granules within neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. The total neutrophil count is found to be decreased. Further workup reveals ineffective bactericidal capabilities of neutrophil due to defective fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes. What is the correct diagnosis?



  1. Agammaglobulinemia of Bruton

  2. Chédiak-Higashi syndrome

  3. Chronic granulomatous disease

  4. DiGeorge’ s syndrome

  5. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome


Test 134

Which one of the listed substances is produced by the action of lipoxygenase on arachidonic acid, is a potent chemotactic factor for neutrophils, and causes aggregation and adhesion of leukocytes?



  1. C5a

  2. Prostacyclin

  3. IL-8

  4. Thromboxane A2

  5. Leukotriene B4


Test 135

During acute inflammation, histamine-induced increased vascular permeability causes the formation of exudates (inflammatory edema).Which one of the listed cell types is the most likely source of the histamine that causes the increased vascular permeability?



  1. Endothelial cells

  2. Fibroblasts

  3. Lymphocytes

  4. Mast cells

  5. Neutrophils


Test 136

What type of leukocyte actively participates in acute inflammatory processes and contains myeloperoxidase within its primary (azurophilic) granules and alkaline phosphatase in its secondary (specific) granules?



  1. Neutrophils

  2. Eosinophils

  3. Monocytes

  4. Lymphocytes

  5. Plasma cells


Test 137

Which one of the listed changes correctly describes the pathophysiology involved in the production of pulmonary edema in patients with congestive heart failure?



  1. Decreased plasma oncotic pressure

  2. Endothelial damage

  3. Increased hydrostatic pressure

  4. Increased vascular permeability

  5. Lymphatic obstruction


Test 138

An I8-year-old college student comes to the student health clinic because of an 8-h history of a severe headache and "stiff neck." She says that two other students in her dormitory have similar symptoms. Her temperature is 39.3°C (IO2.8°F). Physical examination shows nuchal rigidity and palpable purpura on her trunk and lower extremities. Gram stain analysis of cerebrospinal fluid obtained by a lumbar puncture shows Gram-negative intra-cellular diplococci. Which of the following types of inflammation is most likely associated with this patient's neurologic condition?



  1. Cytopathic inflammation

  2. Exudative inflammation

  3. Granulomatous inflammation

  4. Interstitial inflammation

  5. Necrotizing inflammation


Test 139

A 69-year-old woman comes to the emergency department because of a 7-d history of fever, cough, chills, and pleuritic chest pain. She says that her sputum was initially a rust color, but it has been more yellowish over the past few days. Diffuse rales are heard on auscultation. A chest x-ray shows patchy infiltrates. A Gram stain of a sputum sample reveals Gram-positive diplococci. Which of the following is the most likely tissue response to this infectious organism?



  1. Acute inflammatory response with neutrophils

  2. Cell killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

  3. Diffuse mononuclear interstitial infiltrate

  4. Granulomatous inflammation with lymphocytes and macrophages

  5. Severe tissue damage and extensive cell death


Test 140

There are lots of neutrophils in an abdominal exudate in a patient with peritonitis. Which is the main function of neutrophils in an inflammation area?



  1. Phagocytosis

  2. Prostaglandins secretion

  3. Degranulation

  4. Histamine liberation

  5. Local blood flow regulation





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