The cardinal sign of inflammation called rubor is mainly the result of
Decreased interstitial hydrostatic pressure
Decreased vascular permeability of capillaries
Increased vascular permeability of venules
Vasoconstriction of muscular arteries
Vasodilation of arterioles
During the early stages of the inflammatory response, histamine-induced increased vascular permeability is most likely to occur in
Which one of the listed statements best describes the process called chemotaxis?
Abnormal fusion of phagosomes to primary lysosomes
Attachment of chemicals to extracellular material to increase phagocytosis
Dilation of blood vessels by chemotherapeutic drugs
Movement of cells toward a certain site or source
Transmigration of cells from blood vessels into tissue
A 3-year-old boy presents with recurrent bacterial and fungal infections primarily involving his skin and respiratory tract. Physical examination reveals the presence of oculocutaneous albinism. Examination of peripheral blood smear reveals large granules within neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. The total neutrophil count is found to be decreased. Further workup reveals ineffective bactericidal capabilities of neutrophil due to defective fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes. What is the correct diagnosis?
Agammaglobulinemia of Bruton
Chronic granulomatous disease
DiGeorge’ s syndrome
Which one of the listed substances is produced by the action of lipoxygenase on arachidonic acid, is a potent chemotactic factor for neutrophils, and causes aggregation and adhesion of leukocytes?
During acute inflammation, histamine-induced increased vascular permeability causes the formation of exudates (inflammatory edema).Which one of the listed cell types is the most likely source of the histamine that causes the increased vascular permeability?
What type of leukocyte actively participates in acute inflammatory processes and contains myeloperoxidase within its primary (azurophilic) granules and alkaline phosphatase in its secondary (specific) granules?
Which one of the listed changes correctly describes the pathophysiology involved in the production of pulmonary edema in patients with congestive heart failure?
Decreased plasma oncotic pressure
Increased hydrostatic pressure
Increased vascular permeability
An I8-year-old college student comes to the student health clinic because of an 8-h history of a severe headache and "stiff neck." She says that two other students in her dormitory have similar symptoms. Her temperature is 39.3°C (IO2.8°F). Physical examination shows nuchal rigidity and palpable purpura on her trunk and lower extremities. Gram stain analysis of cerebrospinal fluid obtained by a lumbar puncture shows Gram-negative intra-cellular diplococci. Which of the following types of inflammation is most likely associated with this patient's neurologic condition?
A 69-year-old woman comes to the emergency department because of a 7-d history of fever, cough, chills, and pleuritic chest pain. She says that her sputum was initially a rust color, but it has been more yellowish over the past few days. Diffuse rales are heard on auscultation. A chest x-ray shows patchy infiltrates. A Gram stain of a sputum sample reveals Gram-positive diplococci. Which of the following is the most likely tissue response to this infectious organism?
Acute inflammatory response with neutrophils
Cell killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes
Diffuse mononuclear interstitial infiltrate
Granulomatous inflammation with lymphocytes and macrophages
Severe tissue damage and extensive cell death
There are lots of neutrophils in an abdominal exudate in a patient with peritonitis. Which is the main function of neutrophils in an inflammation area?